1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
1 Peter
2 Peter

Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη

Who was Josephus?
Maps, Graphics

War, Volume 1
War, Volume 2
War, Volume 3
War, Volume 4
War, Volume 5
War, Volume 6
War, Volume 7

Ant. Jud., Bk 1
Ant. Jud., Bk 2
Ant. Jud., Bk 3
Ant. Jud., Bk 4
Ant. Jud., Bk 5
Ant. Jud., Bk 6
Ant. Jud., Bk 7
Ant. Jud., Bk 8
Ant. Jud., Bk 9
Ant. Jud., Bk 10
Ant. Jud., Bk 11
Ant. Jud., Bk 12
Ant. Jud., Bk 13
Ant. Jud., Bk 14
Ant. Jud., Bk 15
Ant. Jud., Bk 16
Ant. Jud., Bk 17
Ant. Jud., Bk 18
Ant. Jud., Bk 19
Ant. Jud., Bk 20

Apion, Bk 1
Apion, Bk 2

Daily Word 2019


Sundays, 1-34, Year A
Sundays, 1-34, Year B
Sundays, 1-34, Year C

(Ordinary Time)
Weeks 1-11 (Year 1)
Weeks 1-11 (Year 2)
Wks 12-22 (Year 1)
Wks 12-22 (Year 2)
Wks 23-34 (Year 1)
Wks 23-34 (Year 2)

Saints Days


Gospel of--
-- Nicodemus
-- Peter
-- Ps-Matthew
-- James (Protevangelium)
-- Thomas (Infancy)
-- Thomas (Gnostic)
-- Joseph of Arimathea
-- Joseph_Carpenter
Pilate's Letter
Pilate's End

Apocalypse of --
-- Ezra
-- Moses
-- Paul
-- Pseudo-John
-- Moses
-- Enoch

Clementine Homilies
Clementine Letters
Clementine Recognitions
Dormition of Mary
Book of Jubilees
Life of Adam and Eve
Odes of Solomon
Pistis Sophia
Secrets of Enoch
Veronica's Veil
Vision of Paul
Vision of Shadrach

Acts of
Andrew & Matthias
Andrew & Peter
Paul & Perpetua
Paul & Thecla
Peter & Paul
Andrew and Peter
Thomas in India

Clement of Rome

Ignatius of Antioch

Polycarp of Smyrna

Barnabas,(Epistle of)

Papias of Hierapolis

Justin, Martyr

The Didachë

Irenaeus of Lyons

Hermas (Pastor of)

Tatian of Syria

Theophilus of Antioch

Diognetus (letter)

Athenagoras of Alex.

Clement of Alexandria

Tertullian of Carthage

Origen of Alexandria

Weekdays, Year 1
Weeks 1-11

Week 1


Week 2


Week 3


Week 4


Week 5


Week 6


Week 7


Week 8


Week 9


Week 10


Week 11


Biblical Readings for Mass, as listed in the Irish Liturgical Calendar. Text: NRSV. Psalms: Australian Catholic Lectionary. Homilies from the ACP website (section: Liturgy)

Readings for the 1st Week of Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 1:1-6

God spoke in many and varied ways, but now through Jesus, his Son and heir

Long ago God spoke to our ancestors in many and various ways by the prophets, but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also created the worlds. He is the reflection of God's glory and the exact imprint of God's very being, and he sustains all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.

For to which of the angels did God ever say,
 "You are my Son; today I have begotten you"?
 Or again, "I will be his Father, and he will be my Son"?
 And again, when he brings the firstborn into the world, he says,
 "Let all God's angels worship him."

Responsorial: Psalm 96:1-2, 6-7, 9

R./: Let all his angels worship him

The Lord is king, let earth rejoice,
  the many coastlands be glad.
Cloud and darkness are his raiment;
  his throne, justice and right.(R./)

The skies proclaim his justice;
  all peoples see his glory.
All you spirits, worship him.
 For you indeed are the Lord
  most high above all the earth. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 1:14-20

Jesus begins his mission and calls his first disciples

Now after John was arrested, Jesus came to Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God, and saying, "The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God has come near; repent, and believe in the good news."

As Jesus passed along the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and his brother Andrew casting a net into the sea, for they were fishermen. And Jesus said to them, "Follow me and I will make you fish for people." And immediately they left their nets and followed him.

As he went a little farther, he saw James son of Zebedee and his brother John, who were in their boat mending the nets. Immediately he called them; and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired men, and followed him. They went to Capernaum; and when the sabbath came, he entered the synagogue and taught.


Handing on the Faith

The Scriptures begin where all of us begin, within the bonds of human love and family life, with the gradual development of hopes and possibilities. The Bible always manifests a healthy respect for the normal ways of human nature. Even if Hebrews affirms the divine origins of Jesus, its first words acknowledge the long, slow preparation of the Hebrew Scriptures and the Israelite people for the birth of our Lord, "in times past, God spoke in many and varied ways to our ancestors through the prophets." Those words span the centuries from Abraham to Jesus, where the special Jewish sensitivity to God's presence and action in this world was handed on from father and mother to sons and daughters over many generations.

No spirituality that disdains the bonds of flesh and family can properly claim to be Biblical. Still, there are times when God calls people to "Leave your country and your father's house, and go the land that I will show you." So it was for those working fishermen, whom Jesus called to leave their nets and their families, to travel the countryside with him, spreading his message of love and reconciliation. This Gospel leads us into a prayerful spirit. If at times Jesus may seem only vaguely present to us, he is still nearby, calling us to follow him, not in order to deprive us of ordinary human love, but to enrich and transform it. In the providence of God, transformations take place: Those Galilean fishermen were never the same again. And if to us Jesus says, "Follow me," and we keep trying to respond generously, our life's fulfilment will be safe in his guiding hands.

A lifegiving meeting

Any encounter between two or more people has potential to be a lifegiving moment. The meeting that Peter, Andrew, James and John had with Jesus was such a life-giving moment for those four fishermen, the life-giving power of God was present to them in the person of Jesus. That power of God present in Jesus was the power of love, a love that promised forgiveness, healing, acceptance, a love that gave them a mission in life. The kind of encounter that Peter, Andrew, James and John had with Jesus is offered to each one of us. Jesus is not just a figure of history, belonging to the past. He is the living Lord, still present in his church and in the world, constantly calling out to us and meeting with us in the course of our day to day lives, as he met with Simon, Andrew, James and John while they were going about their work as fishermen.

The Lord meets with us and he speaks to us through the Sacraments, in particular the Eucharist, through the Scriptures, through other people, through nature and from deep within our own hearts. Each time the Lord meets with us we will first hear the good news of God's unconditional love for us, "the kingdom of God is close at hand." We will also hear the call to mission, the call to be good news for others, to be the Lord's body in the world, his feet, his hands, his mouth, his eyes, his ears, "I will make you into fishers of people." This morning we pray for the grace to be as open and response to the Lord's presence and call as Peter, Andrew, James and John were.

Tuesday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 2:5-12

Jesus, crowned with glory, having been tested through suffering

Now God did not subject the coming world, about which we are speaking, to angels. But someone has testified somewhere, "What are human beings that you are mindful of them, or mortals, that you care for them? You have made them for a little while lower than the angels; you have crowned them with glory and honour, subjecting all things under their feet."

Now in subjecting all things to them, God left nothing outside their control. As it is, we do not yet see everything in subjection to them, but we do see Jesus, who for a little while was made lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honour because of the suffering of death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone.

It was fitting that God, for whom and through whom all things exist, in bringing many children to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through sufferings. For the one who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one Father. For this reason Jesus is not ashamed to call them brothers and sisters, saying, "I will proclaim your name to my brothers and sisters, in the midst of the congregation I will praise you."

Responsorial: Psalm 8:2, 5-9

R./: You gave your Son authority over all your creation

How great is your name, O Lord our God,
  through all the earth.
What is man that you should keep him in mind,
  mortal man that you care for him? (R./)

Yet you have made him little less than a god;
  with glory and honour you crowned him,
gave him power over the works of your hand,
  put all things under his feet.(R./)

All of them, sheep and cattle,
  yes, even the savage beasts,
birds of the air and fish
  that make their way through the waters. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 1:21-28

Jesus teaches with authority and even commands unclean spirits

They went to Capernaum; and when the sabbath came, Jesus entered the synagogue and taught. They were astounded at his teaching, for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.

Just then there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit, and he cried out, "What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the Holy One of God."

But Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent, and come out of him." And the unclean spirit, convulsing him and crying with a loud voice, came out of him. They were all amazed, and they kept on asking one another, "What is this? A new teaching, with authority. He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey him." At once his fame began to spread throughout the surrounding region of Galilee.


Who is this man, Jesus, for us?

People in Capernaum wondered about Jesus, impressed by the power of his teaching and his unique authority over evil spirits. But was it really all that new? Others before him had wrestled with devils and evil spirits. We can recall Moses' tryst with the magicians in Egypt and his command over the forces of wickedness and havoc (Ex 7:22; 8:3).

The epistle to the Hebrews centres on the uniqueness of Jesus: He is the one who, during his life on earth was made lower than the angels, but is now crowned with glory and honour because of the death he suffered, "so that by the grace of God he tasted death for everyone." He is the pioneer of our salvation, himself perfected by his sacrificial suffering during his Passion. He brings us into a family relationship with God, for now "the one who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one Father."

We have spiritual joy because Jesus counts us as his brothers and sisters. His life's work was to gather us together as God's family, as it says, "I will proclaim your name to my brothers and sisters." This bond with Jesus calls us to live life actively and prayerfully; to interact with others in promoting the Kingdom of God. It is our privelege that Jesus has shared our trials and pains, so that in him we reach our full identity as children of God.

Building Community

Jesus enters the synagogue of Capernaum and saves a man from an unclean spirit, a condition that had separated him from the community and from God. His life's work was to draw people into a new community of faith, hope and love, and so to a deeper relationship with God. Christ understood our need for sharing, for interaction with our neighbour.

Our way to God is one we must travel with others. Our earthly pilgrimage, our journey towards God, is not a purely private pilgrimage. We need each other to help us along. We have a responsibility for each other on that journey. We have gifts that the Spirit has given us that others need, and others have gifts that the Spirit has given them that we need. Jesus himself never worked alone. The Lord calls us to journey together. The Christian life has to be, at some level, a shared experience, a communal experience.

Wednesday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 2:14-18

Jesus shared our flesh and blood and so is able to help us in our trials

Since the children share flesh and blood, he himself likewise shared the same things, so that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, and free those who all their lives were held in slavery by the fear of death. For it is clear that he did not come to help angels, but the descendants of Abraham. Therefore he had to become like his brothers and sisters in every respect, so that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make a sacrifice of atonement for the sins of the people. Because he himself was tested by what he suffered, he is able to help those who are being tested.

Responsorial: Psalm 104:1-4, 6-9

R./: The Lord remembers his covenant for ever

Give thanks to the Lord, tell his name,
  make known his deeds among the peoples.
O sing to him, sing his praise;
  tell all his wonderful works. (R./)

Be proud of his holy name,
  let the hearts that seek the Lord rejoice.
;Consider the Lord and his strength;
  constantly seek his face. (R./)

O children of Abraham his servant,
  O sons of the Jacob he chose.
He, the Lord, is our God:
  his judgements prevail in all the earth. (R./)

He remembers his covenant for ever,
  his promise for a thousand generations,
the covenant he made with Abraham,
  and swore to his son Isaac. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 1:29-39

Jesus cures Peter's mother-in-law, prays, and preaches the good news

As soon as they left the synagogue, they entered the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John. Now Simon's mother-in-law was in bed with a fever, and they told him about her at once. He came and took her by the hand and lifted her up. Then the fever left her, and she began to serve them.

That evening, at sundown, they brought to him all who were sick or possessed with demons. And the whole city was gathered around the door. And he cured many who were sick with various diseases, and cast out many demons; and he would not permit the demons to speak, because they knew him.

In the morning, while it was still very dark, he got up and went out to a deserted place, and there he prayed. And Simon and his companions hunted for him. When they found him, they said to him, "Everyone is searching for you." He answered, "Let us go on to the neighbouring towns, so that I may proclaim the message there also; for that is what I came out to do." And he went throughout Galilee, proclaiming the message in their synagogues and casting out demons.


Like us in everything

Jesus shared fully in our humanity, even in the experience of loss and death. Hebrews explains that to be effective as our high priest Jesus had to become like his brothers and sisters in every way. He was himself tested through life as we are, but remained sinless. Taking this at face value, one could say that there is no temptation, however ugly or strong, whose force he did not somehow feel, and it puts our own temptations, however persistent, right there within our relationship to Christ.

There was a memorable incident during a visit to the home of Peter's mother-in-law. How kindly Jesus cared about her fever, for he is never merely a spectator to people in trouble. Mark says vividly that Jesus grasped her hand and lifted her up, and the fever left her. Once revived, Peter's mother-in-law get busy caring for the needs of her guests. This detail was retold years later by Peter to Mark, who records it in his Gospel.

When the neighbours learned about Jesus' presence they came looking for a blessing. All was a hectic hubbub as sick people were laid down at the doorstep, and mentally deranged people were brought to be calmed. Growing weary of all this stress, early the next morning Jesus went off to a lonely place to think and to pray. Even then, "Everyone is looking for you." So he returns to ministry mode and sets off to the neighbouring villages to proclaim the gospel. His life has a clear and consistent purpose: "That is what I have come to do." This continued right up to his death, and afterwards, through his Spirit, in the life of the church.

Healing and Praying

There are two different actions of Jesus in today's gospel. The first is the activity of healing. Jesus heals Simon Peter's mother-in-law in the house of Simon and Andrew by taking her by the hand and lifting her up, and then goes on to heal many sick people who were brought to the door of the house. This healing actions of Jesus were public and much appreciated by everyone. so that the whole town came crowding around the door. His second action is private: In the morning, before dawn, he went out to a lonely place to pray.

This second phase, going off by himself to pray, is not appreciated by the public. They want him to be always available. Even those closest to him didn't think much of his going off to have some silent time. Peter even rebukes him for it, "Everybody is looking for you," as much as to say, "Why are you wasting time out here on your own?" Jesus knew that his very identity required close attention to God, as Father, for which he needed time for prayer. The act of praying was as important to him as his work of healing.

Prayer is as vital for us as it was for Jesus. We need to pray if we are to live as he wants us to live and if we are to share in some way in his mission. In prayer we confess and express our dependence on the Lord; we open ourselves to his life-giving presence so as to be channels of that presence to others.

Thursday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 3:7-14

Hearts opened to God, not hardened by sin

Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says, "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion, as on the day of testing in the desert, where your ancestors put me to the test, though they had seen my works for forty years. Therefore I was angry with that generation, ad I said, 'They always go astray in their hearts, and they have not known my ways.' As in my anger I swore, 'They will not enter my rest.'"

Take care, brothers and sisters, that none of you may have an evil, unbelieving heart that turns away from the living God. But exhort one another every day, as long as it is called "today," so that none of you may be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. For we have become partners of Christ, if only we hold our first confidence firm to the end.

Responsorial: Psalm 94:6-11

R./: If today you hear his voice, harden not your hearts

Come in; let us bow and bend low;
 let us kneel before the God who made us.
For he is our God and we the people who belong to his pasture,
 the flock that is led by his hand. (R./)

O that today you would listen to his voice.
 'Harden not your hearts as at Meribah,
 as on that day at Massah in the desert
 when your fathers put me to the test;
 when they tried me, though they saw my work. (R./)

For forty years I was wearied of these people
 and I said: "Their hearts are astray,
 these people do not know my ways."
Then I took an oath in my anger:
 "Never shall they enter my rest." (R./)

Gospel: Mark 1:40-45

Jesus touches and cures the leper, who proceeds to tell everyone about it

A leper came to him begging him, and kneeling he said to him, "If you choose, you can make me clean." Moved with pity, Jesus stretched out his hand and touched him, and said to him, "I do choose. Be made clean." Immediately the leprosy left him, and he was made clean. After sternly warning him he sent him away at once, saying to him, "See that you say nothing to anyone; but go, show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing what Moses commanded, as a testimony to them." But he went out and began to proclaim it freely, and to spread the word, so that Jesus could no longer go into a town openly, but stayed out in the country; and people came to him from every quarter.


True and false fidelity

"Value today," advises the psalmist (as quoted in Hebrews), because right here and now we have the grace we need to live a life of faith, and enjoy true peace. The Bible highlights faith as the lens by which we can interpret the events of life. This is not so much a doctrinal faith in propositions, as an openness to God's guiding spirit. Today it says, right here and now we must not harden our hearts. We must be open to new impulses, inspired by God's presence in our lives. Faith must be lived Today, in spirit and in truth, and not as a fixed adherence to forms of the past. The externals of religion, even defined doctrines and the holiest of shrines and sacraments, exist to facilitate our communion with God. Our inmost hearts are the true Ark of the Covenant and the place where we encounter the living God. Sometimes the externals on which we have relied seem to slump and dwindle. In many places attendance at our church services has fallen drastically and religious expressions hallowed by time seem so out of touch with the Zeitgeist that we wonder how to share faith with our people. It seems that we must cross this desert as the Israelites once did, to find our God again.

Discerning true from false fidelity is not always easy. We Christians and our leaders must bear our share of blame if agnosticism, superstition and New-Age fads are rampant among our people today, in part due to outmoded ways of presenting our handed-down Catholic faith. Every believer has some role in commending the faith, within our proper field: as parent or teacher, as priest or minister, as neighbour or friend. In our interactions we can and do influence others and can help them recover their former strength of faith and a more robust moral vision.

Today's Scriptures raise moral questions about governance, for bishops and all church leaders: Do I use my authority to serve my people, or to dominate them in the name of a hidebound system? Do I seek to reflect with others on what our times require, in light of the Gospel and current opinion, as well as listening to guidance from the Vatican? Does my teaching and example help my people be aware of God's presence? Do I seek ways to bridge the current painful breakdown in communicating the faith?

Touching our wounds

Often in the gospels Jesus heals people by his word alone. In healing the leper, however, Jesus not only spoke to him, but he touched him. In touching the leper, Jesus did what no one else would have done. For obvious reasons, people kept lepers at a distance, and lepers were expected to keep their distance from others. Jesus, however, kept no one at a distance, not even lepers. No one was beyond his reach; no one was untouchable. He came to touch our lives in a very tangible way, all of our lives, regardless of our condition.

The leper wasn't sure if Jesus would want to heal him, as is clear from his opening words, "If you want to, you can cure me." But Jesus showed he wanted to heal him, by touching him. He wants to touch all of our lives, because he wants to bring life to us all. Nothing we do or fail to do, no circumstance in which we find ourselves, need place us beyond his reach. As Paul says to the Romans, "nothing can come between us and the love of God made visible in Christ Jesus." Grace touches our lives, wherever we are, just as we are. All we need is something of the leper's initiative in asking Jesus for a cure.

Friday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 4:1-5, 11

Through faith we shall enter into God's day of rest

While the promise of entering his rest is still open, let us take care that none of you should seem to have failed to reach it. For indeed the good news came to us just as to them; but the message they heard did not benefit them, because they were not united by faith with those who listened. For we who have believed enter that rest, just as God has said, "As in my anger I swore, 'They shall not enter my rest,'" though his works were finished at the foundation of the world. For in one place it speaks about the seventh day as follows, "And God rested on the seventh day from all his works." And again in this place it says, "They shall not enter my rest." Since therefore it remains open for some to enter it, and those who formerly received the good news failed to enter because of disobedience, again he sets a certain day, "today", saying through David much later, in the words already quoted, "Today, if you hear his voice, do not harden your hearts."

If Joshua had given them rest, God would not speak later about another day. So then, a sabbath rest still remains for the people of God; for those who enter God's rest also cease from their labours as God did from his. Let us therefore make every effort to enter that rest, so that no one may fall through such disobedience as theirs.

Indeed, the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing until it divides soul from spirit, joints from marrow; it is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. And before him no creature is hidden, but all are naked and laid bare to the eyes of the one to whom we must render an account. Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who in every respect has been tested as we are, yet without sin.

Responsorial: Psalm 77:3-4, 6-8

R./: Do not forget the works of the Lord

The things we have heard and understood,
 the things our fathers have told us
 we will not hide from their children
 but will tell them to the next generation:
 the glories of the Lord and his might
 and the marvellous deeds he has done. (R./)

They too should arise and tell their sons
 that they too should set their hope in God
 and never forget God's deeds
 but keep every one of his commands. (R./)

So that they might not be like their fathers,
 a defiant and rebellious race,
 a race whose heart was fickle,
 whose spirit was unfaithful to God. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 2:1-12

In Capernaum Jesus heals a paralytic after first forgiving his sins

When Jesus returned to Capernaum after some days, it was reported that he was at home. So many gathered around that there was no longer room for them, not even in front of the door; and he was speaking the word to them. Then some people came, bringing to him a paralyzed man, carried by four of them. And when they could not bring him to Jesus because of the crowd, they removed the roof above him; and after having dug through it, they let down the mat on which the paralytic lay. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, "Son, your sins are forgiven."

Now some of the scribes were sitting there, questioning in their hearts, "Why does this fellow speak in this way? It is blasphemy. Who can forgive sins but God alone?" At once Jesus perceived in his spirit that they were discussing these questions among themselves; and he said to them, "Why do you raise such questions in your hearts? Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, 'Stand up and take your mat and walk'? But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins", he said to the paralytic, "I say to you, stand up, take your mat and go to your home." And he stood up, and immediately took the mat and went out before all of them; so that they were all amazed and glorified God, saying, "We have never seen anything like this."


Getting the balance right

Several facets converge in today's readings, helping to balance each another. Jesus exemplifies at Capernaum how to adapt to dramatic change and yet move steadily onward, towards God's rest. There is a large gathering at the home of Peter's mother-in-law, presumably Jesus' temporary headquarters at Capernaum. We may see it as a symbol of church unity, a reality larger than our Roman Catholic model of church and one that enables all believers to be united with Jesus, and so with each other. From him, in the setting of Peter's home, comes God's word to all who would listen.

An unruly incident takes place in that house, showing the ingenuity and determination of the four men who carried their paralysed friend to Jesus. When they cannot get through the crowd, they proceed to carry the man to the flat roof of the house, make a hole in it and lower the sick man until he lies there before Jesus. The story shows a nice blend of helpfulness and dependency. Without the paralytic those four healthy men would never have gotten this close to Jesus, and without his friends the paralytic was unable to get anywhere.

The supreme moment comes when Jesus re-creates the work of the Creator, by healing the paralytic and restoring him to a new state of innocence: "Which is easier, to say to the paralytic, 'Your sins are forgiven,' or to say, 'Stand up, pick up your mat, and walk again'?" But to enter into God's paradise there must be forgiveness, not only from Jesus, but also from each of us. We are all told to forgive our neighbour if we wish to be forgiven by God. Such is the prayer each day in the Our Father. With such forgiveness, we remain united as one people of God and we avoid the excesses of dominance and mutual recrimination. We can be one people, strong in our opposing infidelity and yet never succumbing to power plays, petty rivalry and materialism. We can cross the bridge of change and support one another in the difficulties of changing times, patient with the sins of others, ready to rally round again in a bond of love and hope.

Carrying their friend

The initiative of the four men carrying the paralytic to Jesus wais extraordinary. They were so determined to get their friend blessed by Jesus that they opened a hole in the roof because the door was totally blocked by the crowd. They wanted to get their friend to this famous healer at all costs. They put their own safety at risk, just as rescue workers often do afte an earthquake, searching for those what are buried under the rubble.

Sometimes we can do little for ourselves and find ourselves dependant on others for health, f or safety, or even life itself. At other we may ourselves be like the four friends of the paralysed man, able to help others to their feet, to bring light where there was darkness. If we carry each other's burdens, we work with Jesus who said, "Come to me all you who labour and are overburdened and I will give you rest." He needs us to help him to carry the burdens of others and to bring them better quality of life

Saturday of Week 1

1st Reading: Hebrews 4:12-16

Our merciful high priest has passed into heaven

Indeed, the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing until it divides soul from spirit, joints from marrow; it is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart. And before him no creature is hidden, but all are naked and laid bare to the eyes of the one to whom we must render an account.

Since, then, we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus, the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who in every respect has been tested as we are, yet without sin. Let us therefore approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

Responsorial: Psalm 18:8-10, 15

R./: Your words, Lord, are spirit and life

The law of the Lord is perfect,
 it revives the soul.
The rule of the Lord is to be trusted,
 it gives wisdom to the simple. (R./)

The precepts of the Lord are right,
 they gladden the heart.
The command of the Lord is clear,
 it gives light to the eyes. (R./)

The fear of the Lord is holy,
 abiding for ever.
The decrees of the Lord are truth
 and all of them just. (R./)

May the spoken words of my mouth,
 the thoughts of my heart,
 win favour in your sight,
 O Lord, my rescuer, my rock. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 2:13-17

The call of Levi/ Matthew. Jesus calls sinners, not the self-righteous

Jesus went out again beside the sea; the whole crowd gathered around him, and he taught them. As he was walking along, he saw Levi son of Alphaeus sitting at the tax booth, and he said to him, "Follow me." And he got up and followed him.

And as he sat at dinner in Levi's house, many tax collectors and sinners were also sitting with Jesus and his disciples, for there were many who followed him. When the scribes of the Pharisees saw that he was eating with sinners and tax collectors, they said to his disciples, "Why does he eat with tax collectors and sinners?" When Jesus heard this, he said to them, "Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick; I have come to call not the righteous but sinners."


Religious leadership

Levi seemed an unlikely person to be chosen to join with Jesus. As a tax collector working for the Roman military government in Judea, Levi was excluded from entering a synagogue or the Jerusalem temple. He was excommunicated from social contact with law-abiding Jews. Although it seemed an odd choice, God, whose word penetrates between soul and spirit, joints and marrow, "judges the thoughts of the heart", sees potential in people whom others too quickly discard. We ourselves may have held some people back by failing to show trust in their ability. Others may have seen in that tax-man only the non-observant, half-pagan Jew, but Jesus saw someone with a compassionate heart, hopeful towards others, in fact, the very dispositions the Lord asks from us.

When thinking about effective leadership in our church, the most basic qualityshould be a strong desire to share faith and love. Leaders need to encourage the good qualities in others. Jesus not only calls Matthew/Levi but also accepts the invitation to dine in his home with all his friends and fellow tax-collectors. The training period is underway, friendship is deepened, trust being established.

As pope Francis memorably said, pastors must be in touch with ordinary people "a shepherd with the smell of the sheep on him." Like our High Priest Jesus who shared the full range of our human experience, the pastor will understand the range of emotions and even temptations experienced by people today. This story joins the idea of mission with a compassionate view of human nature, two essential qualities for religious leadership.

The company he kept

Some religious scholars, the scribes, were shocked by the company Jesus kept. They demanded to know why he ate with tax collectors and sinners. A religion teacher should keep better company than that; he should stick to the company of people like himself. But Jesus did not restrict his attention only to those who measured up to the rules. He was happy to talk with people who seemed to be sinners, just as doctors are normally found in the company of the sick, at least during their working hours.

Our compassionate Lord stays also with us, even if we fall short of what some people expect of us, or far from being all that God wants us to be. Our failings and weaknesses do not drive him away. Rather, his mercy in our failings and weaknesses lifts us up. We are always imperfect in God's eyes, yet he never drives us away. His table is set for us and there is always a place for us there, regardless of how we are faring in life.

Readings for the 2nd Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 2

1st Reading: Hebrews 5:1-10

Jesus is our Priest, and the source of eternal salvation for all

Every high priest chosen from among mortals is put in charge of things pertaining to God on their behalf, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. He is able to deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is subject to weakness; and because of this he must offer sacrifice for his own sins as well as for those of the people. And one does not presume to take this honour, but takes it only when called by God, just as Aaron was. So also Christ did not glorify himself in becoming a high priest, but was appointed by the one who said to him, "You are my Son, today I have begotten you;" as he says also in another place, "You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek."

In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to the one who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverent submission. Although he was a Son, he learned obedience through what he suffered; and having been made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him, having been designated by God a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.

Responsorial: Psalm 109:1-4

R./: You are a priest for ever, in the line of Melchizedek

The Lord's revelation to my Master:
 'Sit on my right: I will put your foes beneath your feet.' (R./)

The Lord will send from Zion your sceptre of power:
 rule in the midst of all your foes. (R./)

A prince from the day of your birth on the holy mountains;
 from the womb before the daybreak I begot you. (R./)

The Lord has sworn an oath he will not change.
 'You are a priest for ever,
 a priest like Melchizedek of old.' (R./)

Gospel: Mark 2:18-22

With the bridegroom present, don't put new wine into old wine skins

John's disciples and the Pharisees were fasting; and people came to Jesus and said, "Why do John's disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but your disciples do not fast?" Jesus answered them, "The wedding guests cannot fast while the bridegroom is with them, can they? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast. The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast on that day. "No one sews a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old cloak; otherwise, the patch pulls away from it, the new from the old, and a worse tear is made. And no one puts new wine into old wineskins; otherwise, the wine will burst the skins, and the wine is lost, and so are the skins; but one puts new wine into fresh wineskins."


Theology and Common Sense

Jesus is contrasted to the high priests of the old covenant, who first had to sacrifice for their own sins and then for those of the people. Earlier in the same epistle (Hebrews) the author calls Jesus our perfect high priest, because having been tempted in every way that we are, yet without sinning, he can sympathize with our weakness and heal it. Rather than trying to theorise about the interaction between the humanity and divinity in Jesus, it may be more fruitful to look first at the Gospel and then return to this issue.

When accused by hard-line traditionalists about the merit of fasting, he does not get trapped into debate about it, but suggests that a new age calls for new ways. "Who would expect fasting and mourning, while the bride and bridegroom are celebrating their marriage?" New times call for new responses, and you cannot resolve issues just by appealing to tradition. Likewise, experience has taught winemakers not to put new, unfermented wine into old wineskins, or the old, shrunken skins will burst. And whoever mends the family garments will not sew a piece of new material on an older, shrunken piece, for the patch will shrink and make a larger hole.

This appeal to common sense has a levelling effect, so everyone can share in the discussion. Sometimes an unlearned person, untrammeled by layers of tradition, will more quickly find an honest, viable answer to a new issue. The example of Jesus seems to say that unless our theology can stand the test of common sense and blend with the accumulated insights of people today, that theology is suspect. How can it be it a valid theology, or truly God's word, if it does not fit the religious sense of God's people?

Now, back to the letter to the Hebrews. The author says that Jesus learned obedience from what he suffered. It is so helpful to know that the Lord understands our own experience of weakness and temptation. "People who are healthy do not need a doctor; but sick people do," he once said, and then added, "I have come to call sinners, not the self-righteous," (Mk 2:17.) He leads us to be humble in our theology and appeals to common sense.

New wineskins

Having called himself the bridegroom, Jesus compares his action to the fermenting of new wine. The new wine of the Lord's life-giving activity calls for new wineskins. His love is a great grace but it also makes demands on us, to keep renewing our hearts to be worthy receptacles for his love. New wine, fresh skins. We have to keep shedding our old skin and keep growing. We can never fully settle for what we have achieved this far.

Tuesday of Week 2

1st Reading: Hebrews 6:10-20

Abraham's long-delayed son. A lesson in patience

God is not unjust; he will not overlook your work and the love that you showed for his sake in serving the saints, as you still do. And we want each one of you to show the same diligence so as to realize the full assurance of hope to the very end, so that you may not become sluggish, but imitators of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

When God made a promise to Abraham, because he had no one greater by whom to swear, he swore by himself, saying, "I will surely bless you and multiply you." And thus Abraham, having patiently endured, obtained the promise. Human beings, of course, swear by someone greater than themselves, and an oath given as confirmation puts an end to all dispute. In the same way, when God desired to show even more clearly to the heirs of the promise the unchangeable character of his purpose, he guaranteed it by an oath, so that through two unchangeable things, in which it is impossible that God would prove false, we who have taken refuge might be strongly encouraged to seize the hope set before us. We have this hope, a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul, a hope that enters the inner shrine behind the curtain, where Jesus, a forerunner on our behalf, has entered, having become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.

Responsorial: Psalm 110:1-2, 4-5, 9, 10

R./: The Lord will remember his covenant for ever

I will thank the Lord with all my heart
 in the meeting of the just and their assembly.
Great are the works of the Lord;
 to be pondered by all who love them. (R./)

He makes us remember his wonders.
The Lord is compassion and love.
He gives food to those who fear him;
 keeps his covenant ever in mind. (R./)

He has sent deliverance to his people
 and established his covenant for ever.
Holy his name, to be feared.
His praise shall last for ever. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 2:23-28

The sabbath was made for people, not people for sabbath

One sabbath he was going through the grainfields; and as they made their way his disciples began to pluck heads of grain. The Pharisees said to him, "Look, why are they doing what is not lawful on the sabbath?" And he said to them, "Have you never read what David did when he and his companions were hungry and in need of food? He entered the house of God, when Abiathar was high priest, and ate the Bread of the Presence, which it is not lawful for any but the priests to eat, and he gave some to his companions." Then he said to them, "The sabbath was made for humankind, and not humankind for the sabbath; so the Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath."


Ministering life?

Hebrews alerts us to offer loving service in the most ordinary events of our everyday contact, especially with those of our own household. Routine matters and familiar people can lead us to peace and holiness. "We have this hope, a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul" God notices each action and each thought, and even the hairs on our head are numbered.

The author refers to the sacred veil separating off the Holy of Holies in the temple. He sees Jesus as our forerunner, who has already passed through the vail. In life he followed the same route that we must take, or to reverse the image, in our turn we walk in his footsteps, and so do our family and friends. Jesus has already reached his home within the Holy of Holies. If we stay near him we too will pass beyond that veil in our turn. Another text from Hebrews pushes this image further. By his death, Jesus has torn apart the separating veil so that all have access into the Holy of Holies. The most inevitable fate any human being, our death, becomes the means of full union with the divine.

Some questions are raised for us by today's readings: Do I put myself at the service of others, seeking peace, welfare and justice for them? Do I appreciate the potential for life in people with disabilities? Am I a minister of life, delighting in all its expressions, devoted to preserving and handing it on?

We are still learners

The Pharisees criticized Jesus' disciples for picking ears of corn on the Sabbath and eating them. As far as they were concerned, this was a form of work, and, so, was forbidden on the Sabbath. They were convinced that they understood what God expected of people on the Sabbath. In fact, they did not understand God's will for the Sabbath. They saw themselves as experts, but in reality they were only learners and they had much to learn from Jesus' understanding of the Sabbath.

When it comes to the ways of the Lord, we are all only learners. The Lord continues to teach and enlighten us in and through his word. So we approach the Scriptures in a spirit of openness and humility. We come not as experts but as learners, inviting the Lord to enlighten us and to lead us on our voyage of discovery all our days.

Wednesday of Week 2 ##

1st Reading: Hebrews 7:1-3, 15-17

The priesthood of Jesus is mysterious and eternal, like Melchisedek's

King Melchizedek of Salem, priest of the Most High God, met Abraham as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him; and to him Abraham apportioned one-tenth of everything. His name, in the first place, means "king of righteousness;" next he is also king of Salem, that is, "king of peace." Without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but resembling the Son of God, he remains a priest forever.

See how great Melchizedek is. Even Abraham the patriarch gave him a tenth of the spoils. And those descendants of Levi who receive the priestly office have a commandment in the law to collect tithes from the people, that is, from their kindred, though these also are descended from Abraham. But this man, who does not belong to their ancestry, collected tithes from Abraham and blessed him who had received the promises. It is beyond dispute that the inferior is blessed by the superior. In the one case, tithes are received by those who are mortal; in the other, by one of whom it is testified that he lives. One might even say that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid tithes through Abraham, for he was still in the loins of his ancestor when Melchizedek met him.

Now if perfection had been attainable through the levitical priesthood, for the people received the law under this priesthood, what further need would there have been to speak of another priest arising according to the order of Melchizedek, rather than one according to the order of Aaron? For when there is a change in the priesthood, there is necessarily a change in the law as well. Now the one of whom these things are spoken belonged to another tribe, from which no one has ever served at the altar. For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, and in connection with that tribe Moses said nothing about priests.

It is even more obvious when another priest arises, resembling Melchizedek, one who ha become a priest, not through a legal requirement concerning physical descent, but through the power of an indestructible life. For it is attested of him, "You are a priest forever, according to the order of Melchizedek."

Responsorial: Psalm 109:1-4

R./: You are a priest for ever, in the line of Melchizedek

The Lord's revelation to my Master: 'Sit on my right:
 I will put your foes beneath your feet.' (R./)

The Lord will send from Zion your sceptre of power;
 rule in the midst of all your foes. (R./)

A prince from the day of your birth on the holy mountains;
 from the womb before the daybreak I begot you. (R./)

The Lord has sworn an oath he will not change.
 'You are a priest for ever,
 a priest like Melchizedek of old.' (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:1-6

Good can certainly be done on Sundays; Jesus heals the man with the paralysed hand

Jesus entered the synagogue, and a man was there who had a withered hand. They watched him to see whether he would cure him on the sabbath, so that they might accuse him. And he said to the man who had the withered hand, "Come forward." Then he said to them, "Is it lawful to do good or to do harm on the sabbath, to save life or to kill?" But they were silent. He looked around at them with anger; he was grieved at their hardness of heart and said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He stretched it out, and his hand was restored. The Pharisees went out and immediately conspired with the Herodians against him, how to destroy him.


The right thing to do?

Both our readings speak of conflict and solutions. Melchisedek meets Abraham on his way back from a raid against some local chiefs, and blesses him; and the Gospel reports a conflict between Jesus and the Pharisees, about what is lawful on the Sabbath. He is grieved that they think not even a work of healing should be allowed on the day of the Lord.

Both texts affirm the triumph of life over death. Hebrews states that like the mysterious priest-king Melchisedek, Jesus is a priest forever, with a life-giving power that cannot be destroyed. And in the debate about what is permissible on the Sabbath, Jesus makes clear that it is above all a day for people to flourish. He prefers whatever enhances life, to whatever diminishes it. Our God is the Lord of life, not of death; of peace, not of violence; of justice, not of oppression.

The question whether warfare can legitimate is a thorny one, to which the Bible provides no definitive answe, but gives contrasting viewpoints about it. Throughout the biblical period, soldiering, both local and international, was an accepted fact of life. Some texts offer clear justification for defensive warfare, such as in the era of the Judges, or to repel the Assyrians. The Pentateuch favoured a war of invasion, especially the conquest of the Promised Land. By contrast, some biblical passages seem to support a radical pacifism. Towards the end of the Old Testament period, the apocalyptic writers maintained that only God himself can justly make war on behalf of his chosen people.

What the Bible says, unambiguously, is that we should live life fully, with justice and compassion towards our neighbour. We need to speak out against evil and injustice, even at some cost to ourselves. Jesus could have side-stepped the issue of how to keep the Sabbath, by healing the sick man in private, but he chose to confront the issue publicly, and cured the man in full view of all. Even peace-loving Abraham took action to rescue his relative from the violence of local warlords, and is blessed by Melchisedek on his return.

We need to remember that those who take the sword shall perish by the sword, Mt 26:52 and that Jesus forbids violence, even in self-defence, Mt 5:39. These ideals make it hard to justify invasion to expand one's kingdom or ideas, since the basic Christian call is not to be served, but to serve, and give one's life in service.

Doing good on the Sabbath

Jesus does good on the Sabbath, by healing the man with the withered hand. But because of that good work, some of the leaders began to plot to destroy him. This is at the start of the third chapter of Mark's gospel, but it predicts the end of the story. Ultimately it was because Jesus persevered in doing God's work that he was crucified.

His life shows that the good we do does not always bring a reward; sometimes it can bring the very opposite. Oscar Wilde used the paradox that no good deed goes unpunished. The visible goodness of some brings out evil in others. Yet Jesus was faithful to the healing work he was sent to do, regardless of how negatively some esponded. Noblesse oblige, and goodness is its own reward. We try to do what God wants of us, because it is God's will and not because of any tangible benefit to us. We try to share in Jesus' work of bringing healing and life to others, even though it may, at times, bring us into conflict.

Thursday of Week 2

1st Reading: Hebrews 7:25-8:6

Jesus our high priest serves in the true tabernacle of heaven

Jesus he is able for all time to save those who approach God through him, since he always lives to make intercession for them. For it was fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, blameless, undefiled, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. Unlike the other high priests, he has no need to offer sacrifices day after day, first for his own sins, and then for those of the people; this he did once for all when he offered himself. For the law appoints as high priests those who are subject to weakness, but the word of the oath, which came later than the law, appoints a Son who has been made perfect forever.

Now the main point is this: we have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens, a minister in the sanctuary and the true tent that the Lord, and not any mortal, has set up. For every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices; hence it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer. Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest at all, since there are priests who offer gifts according to the law. They offer worship in a sanctuary that is a sketch and shadow of the heavenly one; for Moses, when he was about to erect the tent, was warned, "See that you make everything according to the pattern that was shown you on the mountain." But Jesus has now obtained a more excellent ministry, and to that degree he is the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted through better promises.

Responsorial: Psalm 39:7-10, 17

R./: Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will

You do not ask for sacrifice and offerings,
 but an open ear.
You do not ask for holocaust and victim.
 Instead, here am I. (R./)

In the scroll of the book it stands written
 that I should do your will.
 My God, I delight in your law
 in the depth of my heart. (R./)

Your justice I have proclaimed
 in the great assembly.
 My lips I have not sealed;
 you know it, O Lord. (R./)

O let there be rejoicing and gladness
 for all who seek you.
Let them ever say: 'The Lord is great',
 who love your saving help. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:7-12

Jesus teaches the people from a boat

Jesus went off with his disciples to the sea, and a great multitude from Galilee followed him; hearing all that he was doing, they came to him in great numbers from Judea, Jerusalem, Idumea, beyond the Jordan, and the region around Tyre and Sidon. He told his disciples to have a boat ready for him because of the crowd, so that they would not crush him for he had cured many, so that all who had diseases pressed upon him to touch him. Whenever the unclean spirits saw him, they fell down before him and shouted, "You are the Son of God." But he sternly ordered them not to make him known.


Tensions resolved

The suspicion of the Pharisees flames into hatred when they see how the crowd respond to Jesus. As men and women of faith, we may be caught in tensions, like those faced by our Lord. Life is a pilgrimage whose destination is beyond this earth, in those heavenly places where he has already gone "behind the veil." Each of us is a strange mixture of bonding with Jesus and embarrassment at being unable to follow him fully, or even at times just plain tedium about all spiritual matters. While close to our relatives and neighbours, yet we may feel in our hearts some seeds of jealousy or resentment that are hidden there.

We recognize the tensions inherent in the life of faith. We accept as true what we cannot prove nor see; we trust that the goal of life lies beyond this earthly existence. Faith urges us not to succumb to views and actions that many take for granted. Faith bonds us with Jesus, our high priest, who is higher than the heavens. Faith insists that trusting in Jesus is not flimsy as the clouds racing across the sky.

Tension and conflict bring more understanding of our complex lives, even a mature wisdom. One day we too will be beyond the veil and called into the next life. Jesus, our God made human, is our great mediatort, so that our human nature be made like God's. He is our pledge that this will truly happen, when all the tensions of our life will be resolved.

Gathered around him

It was people who were suffering, who were distressed, who had least going for them, that gathered around Jesus. They sensed that he had come to heal their brokenness, that he had come in a special way for the suffering, the broken, the lost.

We too come to him with more urgency when we are struggling and in distress. Like the crowds in Galilee, we reach out to touch the Lord in our brokenness, recognizing him as the source of healing and life. He is as available to us as he was to them; he remains strength in our weakness, healing in our brokenness, life amid our fear of death. We can approach him with the same confidence of being welcomed as the people in the gospel.

Friday of Week 2

1st Reading: Hebrews 8:6-13

Mediator of a new covenant

Jesus has now obtained a more excellent ministry, and to that degree he is the mediator of a better covenant, which has been enacted through better promises. For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no need to look for a second one.

God finds fault with them when he says: "The days are surely coming, says the Lord, when I will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah; not like the covenant that I made with their ancestors, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt; for they did not continue in my covenant, and so I had no concern for them, says the Lord. This is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their minds, and write them on their hearts, and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall not teach one another or say to each other, 'Know the Lord,' for they shall all know me, from the least of them to the greatest. For I will be merciful toward their iniquities, and I will remember their sins no more." In speaking of "a new covenant," he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and growing old will soon disappear.

Responsorial: Psalm 84:8, 10-14

R./: Kindness and truth shall meet

Let us see, O Lord, your mercy
 and give us your saving help.
His help is near for those who fear him
 and his glory will dwell in our land. (R./)

Mercy and faithfulness have met;
 justice and peace have embraced.
Faithfulness shall spring from the earth
 and justice look down from heaven. (R./)

The Lord will make us prosper
 and our earth shall yield its fruit.
 Justice shall march before him
 and peace shall follow his steps. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:13-19

The twelve appointed apostles

Jesus went up the mountain and called to him those whom he wanted, and they came to him. And he appointed twelve, whom he also named apostles, to be with him, and to be sent out to proclaim the message, and to have authority to cast out demons. So he appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of Thunder); and Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Cananaean, and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.


Called to covenant

Jesus going up the mountain with the twelve chosen to be leaders evokes memories of Moses going up Mount Sinai to receive God's law and covenant. Even if the epistle to the Hebrews sees the Mosaic covenant as obsolete, the early Christians felt a link between the two covenants. When God made a new covenant with the house of Israel it did not empty the Mosaic law of all meaning, for it is often quoted in the Gospels.

What is obsolete is the spirit of rigidity. The letter kills, the spirit gives life. We try to conform our wills to God's will, not as slaves but as children, not for seeking reward but to express love and gratitude, not for external show but for inner peace. Even the smallest demand of the law is fulfilled in essence when a Christian lives in a loving spirit.The covenant is lived amid the vicissitudes of human life.

Jesus went up the mountain to select his leadership team. Mountains were a favourable place for prayer and for locating sanctuaries. To find motivation for living the new covenant, we need to value quiet prayer, to find our one security in the Lord. Luke notes how Jesus spent the entire night in a prayer-vigil before choosing the twelve. That scene evokes awareness of God's presence in our lives, letting Him touch our hearts and motives. This can renew our outlook, and help us to a new covenant, vibrant with the presence of Jesus.

Each is needed

Jesus sent out the twelve he had chosen to share in his work. He sent them out to do what he was doing, to preach the gospel and to heal the sick. He needed the help of others to do the work he had been sent to do.

We are to be his eyes, his ears, his hands, his feet and his voice, continuing his work today. He wants to work in and through us. Each of us has a role to paly. The letter to the Hebrews states that in the church everyone is a first-born child and a citizen of heaven. There are no second class citizens in the church. Each is a vital member of Christ's body uniquely graced by the Lord for his work and mission in the world..

Saturday of Week 2

1st Reading: Hebrews 9:2-3, 11-14

Jesus enters the Holy of Holies, so we can serve the living God

A tent was constructed, the first one, in which were the lampstand, the table, and the bread of the Presence; this is called the Holy Place. Behind the second curtain was a tent called the Holy of Holies. In it stood the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant overlaid on all sides with gold, in which there were a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tablets of the covenant; above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot speak now in detail.

Such preparations having been made, the priests go continually into the first tent to carry out their ritual duties; but only the high priest goes into the second, and he but once a year, and not without taking the blood that he offers for himself and for the sins committed unintentionally by the people. By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the sanctuary has not yet been disclosed as long as the first tent is still standing. This is a symbol of the present time, during which gifts and sacrifices are offered that cannot perfect the conscience of the worshipper, but deal only with food and drink and various baptisms, regulations for the body imposed until the time comes to set things right.

But when Christ came as a high priest of the good things that have come, then through the greater and perfect tent, not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. For if the blood of goats and bulls, with the sprinkling of the ashes of a heifer, sanctifies those who have been defiled so that their flesh is purified, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to worship the living God.

Responsorial: Psalm 46:2-3, 6-9

R./: God mounts his throne to shouts of joy;
 a blare of trumpets for the Lord. (R./)

All peoples, clap your hands,
 cry to God with shouts of joy.
For the Lord, the Most High, we must fear,
 great king over all the earth. (R./)

God goes up with shouts of joy;
 the Lord goes up with trumpet blast.
Sing praise for God, sing praise,
 sing praise to our king, sing praise. (R./)

God is king of all the earth.
Sing praise with all your skill.
God is king over the nations;
God reigns on his holy throne. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:20-21

Jesus is mobbed; and his relatives fear he is out of his mind

Jesus went home; and the crowd came together again, so that they could not even eat. When his family heard it, they went out to restrain him, for people were saying, "He has gone out of his mind."


Total dedication

Jesus was so dedicated to his healing ministry that sometimes he hardly had time to eat. His dealing with the crowds was often so hectic that his relatives thought him out of his mind. They planned to lock him up, thinking him out of his mind. Up to that time at least, they did not sympathise with his aims and activity. But we who are nourished by his life-giving blood are drawn into sharing his ministry. We care for for others as our brothers and sisters, in their search for love, understanding, healing and new life.

Hebrews says that we are united with God through the blood of Jesus. The blood symbol refers to life rather than death, though it was by his death that the veil of the temple was rent in two and Jesus entered into the Father's presence. His death on the cross became the supreme sign of loving dedication to us, to bring us to the Father.

Readings for the 3rd Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 3

1st Reading: Hebrews 9:15, 24-28

Jesus as the mediator of a new covenant

Jesus is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, because a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions under the first covenant.

For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made by human hands, a mere copy of the true one, but he entered into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God on our behalf. Nor was it to offer himself again and again, as the high priest enters the Holy Place year after year with blood that is not his own; for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But as it is, he has appeared once for all at the end of the age to remove sin by the sacrifice of himself. And just as it is appointed for mortals to die once, and after that the judgment, so Christ, having been offered once to bear the sins of many, will appear a second time, not to deal with sin, but to save those who are eagerly waiting for him.

Responsorial: Psalm 97:1-6

R./: Sing to the Lord a new song, for he has done marvellous deeds

Sing a new song to the Lord
 for he has worked wonders.
His right hand and his holy arm
 have brought salvation. (R./)

The Lord has made known his salvation;
 and shown his justice to the nations.
He has remembered his truth and love
 for the house of Israel. (R./)

All the ends of the earth have seen
 the salvation of our God.
Shout to the Lord all the earth,
 ring out your joy. (R./)

Sing psalms to the Lord with the harp
 with the sound of music.
With trumpets and the sound of the horn
 acclaim the King, the Lord. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:22-30

If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand

The scribes who came down from Jerusalem said about Jesus, "He has Beelzebul, and by the ruler of the demons he casts out demons." And he called them to him, and spoke to them in parables, "How can Satan cast out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand. And if a house is divided against itself, that house will not be able to stand. And if Satan has risen up against himself and is divided, he cannot stand, but his end has come. But no one can enter a strong man's house and plunder his property without first tying up the strong man; then indeed the house can be plundered.

"Truly I tell you, people will be forgiven for their sins and whatever blasphemies they utter; but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit can never have forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin," for they had said, "He has an unclean spirit."


Paying the price of unity

Unity, its cost and its reward, features in today's readings. For the author to the Hebrews, Jesus epitomises all the temple sacrifices, even the yearly Yom Kippur, by his unique sacrifice on Calvary and his return to his heavenly Father. The high cost of uniting us with God is clear, since it is through the blood of Jesus that we are united as a faith community, to be led into the Holy of Holies.

In the gospel Jesus links unity with loyalty to the Holy Spirit and rejecting Satan. He warns against the most radical sin, rejection of the Holy Spirit. People who sin against the light, blinding themselves to the goodness of others, always suspecting unworthy motives, closing their heart to compassion and forgiveness, risk rejecting the Holy Spirit.

If we ourselves have inner peace in the Holy Spirit, we tend to reach outward and seek peace and unity in our world.. Our desire for unity should be radical, where no person is excluded once and for all. And our efforts are not for merely selfish advantage but for the common good and shared happiness of all.

Hebrews envisions the unity of mankind as founded, renewed and sustained by Jesus, the mediator of the new covenant. He died to unite us as brothers and sisters in God's worldwide family. His blood is the vital element circulating through us all, making a living bond with God the Father and the Holy Spirit. As at Yom Kippur, when the high priest sprinkled blood upon the Holy of Holies, the blood of our High Priest Jesus unites us with the Father. As in a family, blood is thicker than water, so that love and reconciliation become possible. In the blood of Jesus, by which we are drawn into the Holy of Holies. Through him we can learn to trust, and so reach out to our neighbour in his name.

Tuesday of Week 3 ##

1st Reading: Hebrews 10:1-10

The temple rituals were a type of the new covenant, brought by Jesus for all

Since the law has only a shadow of the good things to come and not the true form of these realities, it can never, by the same sacrifices that are continually offered year after year, make perfect those who approach. Otherwise, would they not have ceased being offered, since the worshippers, cleansed once for all, would no longer have any consciousness of sin? But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of sin year after year. For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins. Consequently, when Christ came into the world, he said, "Sacrifices and offerings you have not desired, but a body you have prepared for me; in burnt offerings and sin offerings you have taken no pleasure. Then I said, 'See, God, I have come to do your will, O God' (in the scroll of the book it is written of me)."

When he said above, "You have neither desired nor taken pleasure in sacrifices and offerings and burnt offerings and sin offerings" (these are offered according to the law), then he added, "See, I have come to do your will." He abolishes the first in order to establish the second. And it is by God's will that we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

Responsorial: Psalm 39:2, 4, 7-8, 10-11

R./: Here am I, Lord; I come to do your will. (R./)

I waited, I waited for the Lord
 and he stooped down to me;
  he heard my cry.
He put a new song into my mouth,
  praise of our God. (R./)

You do not ask for sacrifice and offerings,
  but an open ear.
You do not ask for holocaust and victim.
  Instead, here am I. (R./)

Your justice I have proclaimed
  in the great assembly.
My lips I have not sealed;
 you know it, O Lord. (R./)

I have not hidden your justice in my heart
  but declared your faithful help.
I have not hidden your love
  and your truth from the great assembly. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 3:31-35

Jesus calls whoever does God's will his own brothers and sisters

The mother of Jesus and his brothers came; and standing outside, they sent to him and called him. A crowd was sitting around him; and they said to him, "Your mother and your brothers and sisters are outside, asking for you." And he replied, "Who are my mother and my brothers?" And looking at those who sat around him, he said, "Here are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does God's will is my brother and sister and mother."


Smaller and Wider Family

Personal fidelity to God is what makes a family of all Christians. The quality of true discipleship is not measured by social rank or position, privileges of birth, talents or wealth, but by conscious fidelity in daily life. We are asked to undertake all we do as though in the context of family life, regarding others as sister or brother, mother or father to me.

The message in Hebrews is that we should root our daily intentions in the strength and goodness of Jesus. Repeatedly we need to turn to him, to purify our motives and to help to build an ever wider circle of love. The spirit motivating us is to be: "I have come to do your will, O God."

Today's gospel shows a kind of tension between Jesus and his natural family. When his mother Mary and other relatives came looking for him, they would have expected him to drop what he was doing and give his attention to whatever they wanted of him. The words of Jesus startle us with their brusqueness: "Who are my mother and my brothers?"

Sometimes we should make family the centre of our attention; but at other times we need to concentrate on providing service to outsiders. Jesus exemplifies both these calls on our energies and attention. His world mission is to the wider family of mankind, yet from the cross in his final moments he provides for his mother Mary (Jn 19:25-27). Here as elsewhere, Mary represents the church, being the centre of his new family (Acts 1:12-14).

All of us can are ambraced by Jesus as he welcomed his new family "These are my mother and my brothers. Whoever does God's will is brother and sister and mother to me."

Choosing your family

This is the only time the mother of Jesus features in Mark's gospel, when she comes with other family members to "restrain" Jesus. They wanted to bring him home, because some critics thought he was out of his mind. Presumably the family felt genuine concern for Jesus. But just being concerned about someone doesn't necessarily mean we know the right thing to do. On this occasion, in spite of their good intentions, Jesus distanced himself from his mother and his relatives. When word came to him that they had come looking for him, he identified those sitting around listening to him as his real family. Implicitly he was inviting his mother and the others to come inside and to join his new family.

"Whoever does the will of God," Jesus said, "is my brother and sister and mother." Mary and his other relatives had to shelve their own plans for Jesus and let him follow God's will for him. This suggests that even for his mother Mary it was a struggle to discern the will of God and the implications of the prayer, "thy will be done." It is a daily struggle for us also to discern God wants, but it is a worthwhile effort; it is our identifying trait as Christians and in that quest we are following in the steps of Jesus and Mary.

Wednesday of Week 3

1st Reading: Hebrews 10:11-18

Jesus offers one sacrifice that sets up a new covenant with God

Every priest stands day after day at his service, offering again and again the same sacrifices that can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, "he sat down at the right hand of God," and since then has been waiting "until his enemies would be made a footstool for his feet." For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified. And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us, for after saying, "This is the covenant that I will make with them after those days, says the Lord: I will put my laws in their hearts, and I will write them on their minds," he also adds, "I will remember their sins and their lawless deeds no more." Where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

Responsorial: Psalm 109:1-4

R./: You are a priest for ever, in the line of Melchizedek

The Lord's revelation to my Master:
 'Sit on my right:
 I will put your foes beneath your feet.' (R./)

A prince from the day of your birth
 on the holy mountains;
 from the womb before the daybreak I begot you. (R./)

The Lord has sworn an oath he will not change.
 'You are a priest for ever,
 a priest like Melchizedek of old.' (R./)

Gospel: Mark 4:1-20

Parable of the sower and the mystery of the Kingdom of God

Jesus began to teach beside the sea. Such a very large crowd gathered around him that he got into a boat on the sea and sat there, while the whole crowd was beside the sea on the land. He began to teach them many things in parables, and in his teaching he said to them:

"Listen. A sower went out to sow. And as he sowed, some seed fell on the path, and the birds came and ate it up. Other seed fell on rocky ground, where it did not have much soil, and it sprang up quickly, since it had no depth of soil. And when the sun rose, it was scorched; and since it had no root, it withered away. Other seed fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked it, and it yielded no grain. Other seed fell into good soil and brought forth grain, growing up and increasing and yielding thirty and sixty and a hundredfold." And he said, "Let anyone with ears to hear listen."

When he was alone, those who were around him along with the twelve asked him about the parables. And he said to them, "To you has been given the secret of the kingdom of God, but for those outside, everything comes in parables; so that 'they may indeed look, but not perceive, and may indeed listen, but not understand; so that they may not turn again and be forgiven.'"

And he said to them, "Do you not understand this parable? Then how will you understand all the parables? The sower sows the word. These are the ones on the path where the word is sown: when they hear, Satan immediately comes and takes away the word that is sown in them. And these are the ones sown on rocky ground: when they hear the word, they immediately receive it with joy. But they have no root, and endure only for a while; then, when trouble or persecution arises on account of the word, immediately they fall away. And others are those sown among the thorns: these are the ones who hear the word, but the cares of the world, and the lure of wealth, and the desire for other things come in and choke the word, an it yields nothing. And these are the ones sown on the good soil: they hear the word and accept it and bear fruit, thirty and sixty and a hundredfold."


Working with grace

God's promises are being realised in our world, in mysterious ways that we struggle to comprehend. Hebrews teaches that through the one sacrifice offered by Jesus "he has perfected forever those who are being sanctified." He who is our hope, our way, truth and life, lives in us as vine and branches are united in one circle of life. The reality of his divine life within us is expressed in another way as, "I will put my laws in their hearts and I will write them on their minds."

The interpretation of today's gospel parable contains a harsh Old Testament prophecy, "They will look and not see, listen and not understand, lest perhaps they repent and be forgiven" (Isa 6:9-10.) That prophecy offers a glimmer of hope, for the tree-trunk will bloom again after its leaves have fallen. The gospel parable foresees a harvest too, but it also depends on some human effort, preparing the soil, dealing with thorns, rocks and other obstacles to growth. We are not to sit with folded hands, simply waiting for God to do all that is required. Salvation is the interplay of God's grace and our cooperation. We must achieve what is humanly possible, and then in the end we can say, like Paul, "I planted the seed and Apollos watered it, God made it grow", (1 Cor 3:6.)

The farmer's input

The parable of the sower was originally told as an encouraging word to the disciples. But in Mark's telling this parable, a note of warning is injected, for those who do not welcome the word of God. The religious leaders have accused Jesus of breaking the Sabbath; they said he used the power of Satan to heal people. His own relatives have tried to take him in hand because of the general impression that he has lost the run of himself. In that context Jesus notes that Isaiah had prophecied that some would never be open to the truth.

The farmer in the parable faces all kinds of obstacles, with the result that much of the seed that he sows never takes root, and so never produces a crop. Yet, in spite of obstacles and setbacks, the harvest is great. Jesus calls us to look beyond obstacles, set-backs and disappointments; God is at work in my ministry and in the end the harvest will be great.

We can be discouraged by what is not going well, by the failure and losses we see. The parable encourages us to keep hopeful in the midst of loss and failure, because the Lord is always a work in a life-giving way even when failure and loss seem to dominate the landscape.

Thursday of Week 3

1st Reading, Hebrews 10:19-25

We enter the Holy of Holies by the new and living path Jesus has opened for us

Therefore, my friends, since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us approach with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.

Let us hold fast to the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who has promised is faithful. And let us consider how to provoke one another to love and good deeds, not neglecting to meet together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another, and all the more as you see the Day approaching.

Responsorial: Psalm 23:1-6

R./: Lord, this is the people that longs to see your face

The Lord's is the earth and its fullness,
 the world and all its peoples.
It is he who set it on the seas;
 on the waters he made it firm. (R./)

Who shall climb the mountain of the Lord?
Who shall stand in his holy place?
The man with clean hands and pure heart,
 who desires not worthless things. (R./)

He shall receive blessings from the Lord
 and reward from the God who saves him.
Such are the men who seek him,
 seek the face of the God of Jacob. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 4:21-25

The contrast between those who have and the have-nots

Jesus said to those who were with him, "Is a lamp brought in to be put under the bushel basket, or under the bed, and not on the lampstand? For there is nothing hidden, except to be disclosed; nor is anything secret, except to come to light. Let anyone with ears to hear listen."

And he said to them, "Pay attention to what you hear; the measure you give will be the measure you get, and still more will be given you. For to those who have, more will be given; and from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away."


Passing through the veil

The Journey of Jesus goes via the cross into the heavenly sanctuary. The image used in today's text from Hebrews comes from the Jewish ritual of Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, when once a year the high priest entered behind the veil into the Holy of Holies. There, amid a smoking cloud of incense, he sprinkled blood towards the Ark of the Covenant. This signified the people's purification by the sacrificial blood, assuring the bond between them and God. This ceremony took on new, poignant meaning with the death of Jesus. He is the new and ultimate high priest, the sacrificial blood is his own precious blood, the cross is both altar and sanctuary. With a shift of symbolism, common enough in the Bible, the veil guarding the Holy of Holies is the flesh of Jesus himself. Both were torn open when Jesus died on the cross and "suddenly the curtain of the sanctuary was torn in two from top to bottom" (Mt 27:50-51.)

At the eucharistic table, the lamp is not hidden under a basket, and we see the new meaning that grace brings our lives. The Eucharist is the tabernacle of God's special presence with us. If we have this kind of faith, then "to those who have will more be given." If we give of ourselves in full measure we will receive, "and more besides." By uniting our lives with Jesus, the lamp is taken up and placed on a lampstand. To join this figure of speech with the message of Hebrews, by the light of this lamp we will see the God's love through the torn veil, the sacrificed body of Jesus, and experience a new sense of union with our God, who dwells in the Holy of Holies beyond the veil.

Fruitful listening

Jesus calls us to listen carefully to what he says, "Whoever has ears to hear, listen to this." We hear many things but we do not always pay enough attention to understand what we hear. Just as there can be more to someone than meets the eye, there can be more to what is said than meets the ear. When we listen attentively we can get the full meaning of in what is said.

What is true in regard to listening to others is even more so in listening to God's word. There is always more to the word of the Lord than first meets the ear. The more carefully we listen, the more we will receive, "the amount you measure out is the amount you will be given, and more besides." The riches of the Lord's word are plentiful and generous with. But it is our own generous and attentive listening that opens our lives to receive those riches.

Friday of Week 3

1st Reading, Hebrews 10:32-39

Do not abandon hope, but trust in God's promises

Remember those earlier days when, after you had been enlightened, you endured a hard struggle with sufferings, sometimes being publicly exposed to abuse and persecution, and sometimes being partners with those so treated. For you had compassion for those who were in prison, and you cheerfully accepted the plundering of your possessions, knowing that you yourselves possessed something better and more lasting. Do not, therefore, abandon that confidence of yours; it brings a great reward. For you need endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised.

For yet "in a very little while, the one who is coming will come and will not delay; but my righteous one will live by faith. My soul takes no pleasure in anyone who shrinks back." But we are not among those who shrink back and so are lost, but among those who have faith and so are saved.

Responsorial: Psalm 36:3-6, 23-24, 39-40

R./: The salvation of the just comes from the Lord

If you trust in the Lord and do good,
 then you will live in the land and be secure.
 If you find your delight in the Lord,
 he will grant your heart's desire. (R./)

Commit your life to the Lord,
 trust in him and he will act,
 so that your justice breaks forth like the light,
 your cause like the noon-day sun. (R./)

The Lord guides the steps of a man
 and makes safe the path of one he loves.
Though he stumble he shall never fall
 for the Lord holds him by the hand. (R./)

The salvation of the just comes from the Lord,
 their stronghold in time of distress.
The Lord helps them and delivers them and saves them:
 for their refuge is in him. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 4:26-34

The seed sprouts and grows mysteriously, to become the largest of shrubs

Jesus said, "The kingdom of God is as if someone would scatter seed on the ground, and would sleep and rise night and day, and the seed would sprout and grow, he does not know how. The earth produces of itself, first the stalk, then the head, then the full grain in the head. But when the grain is ripe, at once he goes in with his sickle, because the harvest has come."

He also said, "With what can we compare the kingdom of God, or what parable will we use for it? It is like a mustard seed, which, when sown upon the ground, is the smallest of all the seeds on earth; yet when it is sown it grows up and becomes the greatest of all shrubs, and puts forth large branches, so that the birds of the air can make nests in its shade."

With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it; he did not speak to them except in parables, but he explained everything in private to his disciples.


Seed Of The Future

God's message is like a seed full of promise, which bears fruit only after much patient waiting in the darkness of the earth. There is conflict and change as the seed breaks apart and loses itself for the new sprout to develop and appear on the surface of the earth. We will try linking the parable about the seed sown within the dark earth with today's text from Hebrews.

Hebrews was probably written for converts from Judaism, some of them former priests of the Temple. (Acts 6:7, "many Jewish priests, embraced the faith.") These could easily remember, with nostalgia and regret, their splendid temple ritual in former times, whereas they now had only simple prayer meetings in private house, and eucharist in upper rooms, little ritual and no grandeur. Their family ties had been disrupted and many of their own household now disowned or persecuted them.

Hebrews faces this problem of discouragement within the small Christian community. Today's text admits that they have endured a great contest of suffering; were publicly exposed to insult and the confiscation of their goods. There is the call to persevere: do not surrender, don't give up. This hardship is just for a while, and Christ will not delay to come and be with his faithful ones.

It's nature's mystery how the seed that falls into the ground becomes stalks of wheat to provide our food, or another seed becomes a leafy tree, where the birds of the sky build nests in its shade. Nor can we understand God's ways in the history of his servants. Yet as wheat provides bread and the trees offer shade, so also God does his people. Salvation is a patient process. And we must wait through the long dark hours until the seed developes into what it eventually will become.

The mystery of growth

The seed growing secretly draws our attention to the mystery of growth. The farmer works hard to sow the seed, but then has to wait for it to sprout. In ways he does not fully understand, seeds grow of their own accord. It is only when the seed is fully grown and the crop is ripe that the farmer can set to work again. The wise farmer knows when it is time to reap, and when it is time to wait and let nature to take its course.

Most of us are not farmers, but like the one in the parable we need to get the right balance between making something happen and then letting it happen. The balance between initiative and patience is important for all development, including our own and that of others. The mystery of growth is not something we can fully control. There are certain things we can do to bring it about, but other things only the Lord can do. While cooperating as best we can, we must let the Lord bring the work of his grace to its full flowering in us. Like the wise farmer we are grateful for the mystery of growth.

Saturday of Week 3

1st Reading: Hebrews 11:1-2, 8-19

Divine blessing on Abraham and his descendants

Faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. Indeed, by faith our ancestors received approval. By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to set out for a place that he was to receive as an inheritance; and he set out, not knowing where he was going. By faith he stayed for a time in the land he had been promised, as in a foreign land, living in tents, as did Isaac and Jacob, who were heirs with him of the same promise. For he looked forward to the city that has foundations, whose architect and builder is God. By faith he received power of procreation, even though he was too old, and Sarah herself was barren, because he considered him faithful who had promised. Therefore from one person, and this one as good as dead, descendants were born, "as many as the stars of heaven and as the innumerable grains of sand by the seashore."

All of these died in faith without having received the promises, but from a distance they saw and greeted them. They confessed that they were strangers and foreigners on the earth, for people who speak in this way make it clear that they are seeking a homeland. If they had been thinking of the land that they had left behind, they would have had opportunity to return. But as it is, they desire a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; indeed, he has prepared a city for them. By faith Abraham, when put to the test, offered up Isaac. He who had received the promises was ready to offer up his only son, of whom he had been told, "It is through Isaac that descendants shall be named for you." He considered the fact that God is able even to raise someone from the dead, and figuratively speaking, he did receive him back.

Responsorial: Luke 1:69-75

R./: Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel; he has come to his people

God has raised up for us a mighty saviour
 in the house of David his servant,
as he promised by the lips of holy men,
 those who were his prophets from of old. (R./)

A Saviour who would free us from our foes,
 from the hands of all who hate us.
So his love for our fathers is fulfilled
 and his holy covenant remembered. (R./)

He swore to Abraham our father to grant us,
 that free from fear, and saved from the hands of our foes,
we might serve him in holiness and justice
 all the days of our life in his presence. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 4:35-41

Jesus calms the storm

When evening came Jesus said to them, "Let us go across to the other side." And leaving the crowd behind, they took him with them in the boat, just as he was. Other boats were with him. A great windstorm arose, and the waves beat into the boat, so that the boat was already being swamped. But he was in the stern, asleep on the cushion; and they woke him up and said to him, "Teacher, do you not care that we are perishing?" He woke up and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea, "Peace. Be still." Then the wind ceased, and there was a dead calm. He said to them, "Why are you afraid? Have you still no faith?" And they were filled with great awe and said to one another, "Who then is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?"


What assurance have we?

We are human beings, neither angels nor gods; we live on planet earth, not yet in our heavenly home. We deal with uncertain hopes and struggle with opposite tendencies within ourselves. At best, we hold to some noble ideals, implanted by nature and grace, and clarified in the Bible, our book of life. It invites us to reflect on the heroism of great women and men who went before us. These were ordinary folk, with human weakness and temptations, yet who lived with "confident assurance about things we do not see." Hebrews imagines a cloud of witnesses hovering over us and beckoning us also to be men and women of heroic faith.

Ideals are more than phrases in a book, even a book as sacred as the Bible; they go beyond mere doctrines, for God is immediately involved. Abraham, Sarah and the other Old Testament saints are described as living like "strangers and foreigners on the earth", because they experienced a deep longing for their homeland in the presence of the living God.

To his frightened disciples Jesus said, "Do not be afraid." He is with us always, even during stormy times, when we fear the raging wind and are threatened by waves breaking against the boat of our lives. He asks us, as he asked them, "Why are you so afraid? Why so little faith?" He infuses us with new strength and points the way forward. He enables us to be patient, to remain faithful, and to keep putting our ideals to work.

Don't you even care?

What a contrast between the calm of Jesus and his disciples's cries of alarm when the storm breaks over their boat on the lake of Galilee. He was lying in the stern of the boat, asleep, with his head on a cushion. The disciples were in a panic and woke him up to complain, "Master, do you not care? We are going down."

The fact that Jesus could stay asleep even through the noise of the storm shows his great calm. His disciples' panic was normal, but it also showed their lack of trust in God. He asks, "Why are you so frightened? How is it that you have no faith?" He wanted them to share his own trust in God even in the howling wind and lashing rain blowing over the stormy lake.

We all face storms of one kind or another in our lives. We have lived through stormy times in our church in recent decades, between scandals, defections and virtual schisms. Yet we trust that God is near us, even in the midst of the most threatening times. We are to share Jesus' own trusting relationship with God, even when the ground seems to shake under us, and the outlook is grim. As Jesus was in the boat with the disciples, he is with us too as individuals and as a church. If we trust him he will bring us safe to the other side, the far shore, after all the storms have blown over.



Readings for the 4th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 11:32-40

Great past examples of faith and fidelity

Time would fail me to tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets -- who through faith conquered kingdoms, administered justice, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions, quenched raging fire, escaped the edge of the sword, won strength out of weakness, became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. Women received their dead by resurrection. Others were tortured, refusing to accept release, in order to obtain a better resurrection. Others suffered mocking and flogging, and even chains and imprisonment. They were stoned to death, they were sawn in two, they were killed by the sword; they went about in skins of sheep and goats, destitute, persecuted and tormented -- of whom the world was not worthy. They wandered in deserts and mountains, and in caves and holes in the ground.

Yet all these, though they were commended for their faith, did not receive what was promised, since God had provided something better so that they would not, apart from us, be made perfect.

Responsorial: Psalm 30:20-24

Response: Let your hearts take comfort, all who hope in the Lord. (R./)

How great is the goodness, Lord,
 that you keep for those who fear you,
 that you show to those who trust you in the sight of men. (R./)

You hide them in the shelter of your presence
 from the plotting of men:
 you keep them safe within your tent
 from disputing tongues. (R./)

Blessed be the Lord who has shown me
 the wonders of his love in a fortified city. (R./)

'I am far removed from your sight'
 I said in my alarm.
Yet you heard the voice of my plea
 when I cried for help. (R./)

Love the Lord, all you saints.
He guards the faithful
but the Lord will repay to the full
 those who act with pride. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 5:1-20

Jesus cures the Gerasene demoniac

Jesus and his disciples came to the other side of the sea, to the country of the Gerasenes. And when he had stepped out of the boat, immediately a man out of the tombs with an unclean spirit met him. He lived among the tombs; and no one could restrain him any more, even with a chain; for he had often been restrained with shackles and chains, but the chains he wrenched apart, and the shackles he broke in pieces; and no one had the strength to subdue him. Night and day among the tombs and on the mountains he was always howling and bruising himself with stones. When he saw Jesus from a distance, he ran and bowed down before him; and he shouted at the top of his voice, "What have you to do with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by God, do not torment me." For he had said to him, "Come out of the man, you unclean spirit." Then Jesus asked him, "What is your name?" He replied, "My name is Legion; for we are many." He begged him earnestly not to send them out of the country. Now there on the hillside a great herd of swne was feeding; and the unclean spirits begged him, "Send us into the swine; let us enter them." So he gave them permission. And the unclean spirits came out and entered the swine; and the herd, about two thousand in number, rushed down the steep bank into the sea, and were drowned in the sea.

The swineherds ran off and told it in the city and in the country. Then people came to see what it was that had happened. They came to Jesus and saw the demoniac sitting there, clothed and in his right mind, the very man who had had the legion; and they were afraid. Those who had seen what had happened to the demoniac and to the swine reported it. Then they began to beg Jesus to leave their neighbourhood. As he was getting into the boat, the man who had been possessed by demons begged him that he might be with him. But Jesus refused, and said to him, "Go home to your friends, and tell them how much the Lord has done for you, and what mercy he has shown you." And he went away and began to proclaim in the Decapolis how much Jesus had done for him; and everyone was amazed.


Tested on Life's Pilgrimage

Our faith teaches that while on earth we are being prepared for eternity. Not that every day of our existence is such a struggle. If it were, we would collapse and go mad like the demoniac in the Gospel. Yet sometimes in life we struggle between good and evil forces and to survive we need the virtues of patience and hope.

The author of Hebrews portrays Jesus as sharing human life to the fullest, tested by every kind of human dilemma, and eventually after his passion and death, entering into the Holy of Holies. He has drawn on many Old Testament themes, mostly liturgical or doctrinal. But now he summarizes the earthly pilgrimage of Jesus in another way, by a litany of Old Testament saints, all of whom were heroically faithful to God.

He recounts the heroism of the saints not to distinguish them from us but to unite us with them in the family of God. Like those Old Testament saints, we need others to support and encourage us through hard times. But courage and heroism need the balancing power of charity: If I have faith great enough to move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. In the end there are three things that last: faith, hope, and love, and the greatest of these is love (1 Cor 13:2-3, 13).

The calming force of Jesus

The gospel today tells a disturbing story about a man quite out of control, completely ruled by some malign spirit. He was the total outsider, more dead than alive, preferring to live among the tombs. But Jesus reached out to him and by this encounter the man was cured, to return to the community from which he came. Rather as he had calmed the storm on the lake, Jesus calmed the storm in this man's psyche and sent him back to bring a blessing on his community.

Without ever being as disturbed as that madman, we are sometimes out of tune with ourselves and with others, tossed and torn by conflicting emotions. That's when we too need Christ's healing presence. Full of anger, the madman asked "What have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth?" That may be how we sometimes feel. Yet, the Lord who stills the storm has pity for the disturbance we feel. If we let him restore peace to our hearts, he will send us to share his peace with others.

Tuesday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 12:1-4

Around us a cloud of witnesses, and Jesus himself, to encourage us

Therefore, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us also lay aside every weight and the sin that clings so closely, and let us run with perseverance the race that is set before us, 2 looking to Jesus the pioneer and perfecter of our faith, who for the sake of the joy that was set before him endured the cross, disregarding its shame, and has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of God. Consider him who endured such hostility against himself from sinners, so that you may not grow weary or lose heart. In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood.

Responsorial: Psalm 21:26-28, 30-32

R./: They will praise you, Lord, who long for you

My vows I will pay before those who fear him.
The poor shall eat and shall have their fill.
They shall praise the Lord, those who seek him.
 May their hearts live for ever and ever. (R./)

All the earth shall remember and return to the Lord,
 all families of the nations worship before him.
They shall worship him, all the mighty of the earth;
 before him shall bow all who go down to the dust. (R./)

And my soul shall live for him,
 my children serve him.
They shall tell of the Lord to generations yet to come,
 declare his faithfulness to peoples (R./)

Gospel: Mark 5:21-43

Jesus cures the hemorraging woman and revives the daughter of Jairus

When Jesus had crossed again in the boat to the other side, a great crowd gathered around him; and he was by the sea. Then one of the leaders of the synagogue named Jairus came and, when he saw him, fell at his feet and begged him repeatedly, "My little daughter is at the point of death. Come and lay your hands on her, so that she may be made well, and live." So he went with him.

A large crowd followed him and pressed in on him. Now there was a woman who had been suffering from hemorrhages for twelve years. She had endured much under many physicians, and had spent all that she had; and she was no better, but rather grew worse. She had heard about Jesus, and came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, for she said, "If I but touch his clothes, I will be made well." Immediately her hemorrhage stopped; and she felt in her body that she was healed of her disease. Immediately aware that power had gone forth from him, Jesus turned about in the crowd and said, "Who touched my clothes?" And his disciples said to him, "You see the crowd pressing in on you; how can you say, 'Who touched me?'" He looked all around to see who had done it. But the woman, knowing what had happened to her, came in fear and trembling, fell down before him, and told him the whole truth. He said to her, "Daughter, your faith has made you well; go in peace, and be healed of your disease."

While he was still speaking, some people came from the leader's house to say, "Your daughter is dead. Why trouble the teacher any further?" But overhearing what they said, Jesus said to the leader of the synagogue, "Do not fear, only believe." He allowed no one to follow him except Peter, James, and John, the brother of James. When they came to the house of the leader of the synagogue, he saw a commotion, people weeping and waiing loudly. When he had entered, he said to them, "Why do you make a commotion and weep? The child is not dead but sleeping." And they laughed at him. Then he put them all outside, and took the child's father and mother and those who were with him, and went in where the child was. He took her by the hand and said to her, "Talitha kum," which means, "Little girl, get up." And immediately the girl got up and began to walk about (she was twelve years of age). At this they were overcome with amazement. He strictly ordered them that no one should know this, and told them to give her something to eat.


How do we touch him

When dealing with people, Jesus often asks questions. It is worth noticing the questions he asks and pondering them. In the middle of a crowd he asked, "Who touched me?" His disciples wondered how he could ask that question, since dozens of people were touching him. Jesus knew that one particular person touched him in a way that was different from the rest. Many were brushing up against him; but one was trying to make personal contact with him. When he discovered who it was, he said to her, "your faith has restored you to health."

The woman was seeking Jesus sincerely and humbly, even though trying to stay hidden. The Lord is always near, always among us. Sometimes we can pass him by without much attention. But that unknown woman shows the value of a very personal reaching out for his help. With faith and persistence like hers, we can experience his life-giving power in our lives.

The personal touch

Two people wanted help from Jesus. One was a synagogue official named Jairus, a respected personality in the community, who asked Jesus publicly to help his dying daughter. The other was a nameless woman who would have felt isolated because of her condition and who came privately on her own behalf, only to touch the hem of his garment. The two petitioners had something in common. They both trusted in the power of Jesus to bring life and healing.

Human need and trust in God can bring together people who otherwise have little in common. The church is a is very diverse community of believers. All kinds of people are gathered there. But the Lord Jesus engages with each one in our uniqueness. He wants a relationship with each of us. That is why he insisted on meeting the woman who touched the hem of his cloak. He needed to look into her eyes and talk to her, to confirm her self-worth. The woman who wanted to be anonymous found herself called by name. Indeed Jesus Jesus calls her "my daughter." He calls each of us by name; he relates to us as the unique individual that we are.

Wednesday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 12:4-7, 11-15

Trials will come but they yield spiritual fruit

In your struggle against sin you have not yet resisted to the point of shedding your blood. And you have forgotten the exhortation that addresses you as children, "My child, do not regard lightly the discipline of the Lord, or lose heart when you are punished by him; for the Lord disciplines those whom he loves, and chastises every child whom he accepts."

Endure trials for the sake of discipline. God is treating you as children; for what child is there whom a parent does not discipline? Now, discipline always seems painful rather than pleasant at the time, but later it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness to those who have been trained by it. Therefore lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees, and make straight paths for your feet, so that what is lame may not be put out of joint, but rather be healed. Pursue peace with everyone, and the holiness without which no one will see the Lord. See to it that no one fails to obtain the grace of God; that no root of bitteness springs up and causes trouble, and through it many become defiled.

Responsorial: Psalm 102:1-2, 13-14, 17-18

R./: The Lord's kindness is everlasting to those who fear him

My soul, give thanks to the Lord,
 all my being, bless his holy name.
 My soul, give thanks to the Lord
 and never forget all his blessings. (R./)

As a father has compassion on his sons,
 the Lord has pity on those who fear him;
 for he knows of what we are made,
 he remembers that we are dust. (R./)

But the love of the Lord is everlasting
 upon those who hold him in fear;
 his justice reaches out to children's children
 when they keep his covenant in truth. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 6:1-6

When the people of Nazareth reject Jesus he is amazed at their unbelief

Jesus left that place and came to his home town, and his disciples followed him. On the sabbath he began to teach in the synagogue, and many who heard him were astounded. They said, "Where did this man get all this? What is this wisdom that has been given to him? What deeds of power are being done by his hands. Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon, and are not his sisters here with us?" And they took offense at him. Then Jesus said to them, "Prophets are not without honour, except in their hometown, and among their own kin, and in their own house." And he could do no deed of power there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick people and cured them. And he was amazed at their unbelief.


It only seemed like failure

The response Jesus got when he stood up to speak in his own home town was not encouraging. What would he know, anyway, they've known his family for years? What could he have to say that they did not already know? The critics mentioned the brothers and sisters of Jesus, implying that they were ordinary villagers without distinction. They would not expect important new ideas from him, either. This all-too-common response of contempt illustrates the depth of the Incarnation. Jesus became like us in everything, except sin. As regards his brothers and sisters, from antiquity and from belief in Mary's perpetual virginity, the Church has taken them to be either "cousins" or "half-siblings", children of Joseph from an earlier marriage. At any rate it seems that some of his extended family were no more disposed to listen to him than were the other villagers.

Apart from the scepticism of the villagers, there are two other vivid, typically Markan elements in this story. The first is, "They took offence at him." Far from the admiration reported in other episodes, as in the healing of the bleeding woman or restoring life to the daughter of Jairus, the people of Nazareth are angry at Jesus. They cannot believe that he has God's message to spread. Secondly is Mark's blunt statement that He could do no deed of power there. It is as though their unbelief blocked his miraculous power. Healing seems to depend on a receptive spirit, or faith.

For anyone discouraged by their apparent failure to minister faith and love to others, it is a comfort to hear how Jesus experienced this too. The letter to the Hebrews adds its own word of gruff encouragement when telling his fellow Jewish-Christians that trials are sent to test us and make us stronger/ It urges them to "Lift your drooping hands and strengthen your weak knees." If like them we can persevere in what is asked of us, we too will not fail to obtain the grace of God.

Familiarity breeds contempt

The Nazareth villagers were slow to recognize the wisdom of Jesus and his power to heal the sick. They should have known that God was working through him in a special way. Instead, they rejected him and scorned him. He was too familiar to them. They knew his mother and his family. He was one of their own, too ordinary to be anything special. It was a clear case of familiarity breeding contempt.

Possibly we too can be slow to recognize the presence of God in the ordinary and the familiar. We don't have to go long distances, or visit exotic shrines, to find the wisdom and power of God. It is all around us in the near and the familiar, in the humdrum and in the ordinary, if we have eyes to see and ears to hear. Jesus invites us to see the familiar and the ordinary with new eyes. The failure of his neighbours in Nazareth to open their eyes put limits to what he could do among them. Our spirit of welcome makes room for the Lord to work among us and give us life.

Thursday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 12:18-19, 21-24

The sacrificial blood of Jesus opens up a new Covenant

You have not come to something that can be touched, a blazing fire, and darkness, and gloom, and a tempest, and the sound of a trumpet, and a voice whose words made the hearers beg that not another word be spoken to them. Indeed, so terrifying was the sight that Moses said, "I tremble with fear." But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to innumerable angels in festal gathering, and to the assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous made perfect, and to Jesus, the mediator of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled blood that speaks a better word than the blood of Abel.

Responsorial: Psalm 47:2-4, 9-11

R./: God, in your temple, we ponder your love

The Lord is great and worthy to be praised
 in the city of our God.
His holy mountain rises in beauty,
 the joy of all the earth. (R./)

Mount Zion, true pole of the earth,
 the Great King's city.
God, in the midst of its citadels,
 has shown himself its stronghold. (R./)

As we have heard, so we have seen
 in the city of our God,
 in the city of the Lord of hosts
 which God upholds for ever. (R./)

O God, we ponder your love within your temple.
Your praise, O God, like your name
 reaches to the ends of the earth.
With justice your right hand is filled. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 6:7-13

Jesus sends out the twelve in pairs, to preach, anoint and heal

Jesus called the twelve and began to send them out two by two, and gave them authority over the unclean spirits. He ordered them to take nothing for their journey except a staff; no bread, no bag, no money in their belts; but to wear sandals and not to put on two tunics. He said to them, "Wherever you enter a house, stay there until you leave the place. If any place will not welcome you and they refuse to hear you, as you leave, shake off the dust that is on your feet as a testimony against them." So they went out and proclaimed that all should repent. They cast out many demons, and anointed with oil many who were sick and cured them.


Messengers of Faith

He chose twelve men (they are named in several lists, though with some inconsistencies in the lists (Mt 10:2-4; Mk 3:16-19-19; Lk 6:14-16; Ac 1:13). He named them "apostles" (Mk 3:13) and there was special significance in the number twelve, since they are often referred to later as simply "the twelve". Furthermore, when Judas Iscariot dropped out of their number, another had to be chosen in his place, to fill up that number twelve (Ac 1:20ff). Peter said that one of the group who were present during the public ministry of the Lord Jesus "must become a witness with us to his resurrection." Filling the place of Judas was vital, since their number mirrored the twelve tribes of Israel (Mt 19:28; Lk 22:3). They were to lead the new community of the followers of Jesus.

In later centuries the idea of apostolic succession has taken concrete form, especially once the bishops were understood as successors to the Twelve. The episcopal functions of teaching, ruling and sanctifying are linked to the choice of the apostles. But if this succession is a valid development, it would be a pity to forget the original task entrusted to the apostles. Mark is the earliest of our Gospels and largely based on the memories of St. Peter who (according to bishop Papias) was Mark's patron and mentor in Rome. According to Mark, apostles were to travel around in frugal simplicity as messengers of the Kingdom of Heaven, with words of repentance, hope and healing, and to preach a message of peace. This is the leadership given to bishops, along with St. Peter's urging them to be "witnesses to the resurrection of Jesus."

Inspired and encouraged by this apostolic leadership by our bishops, we might relate to the bright vision of the church sketched in Hebrews, as Mount Zion and the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. The church is the assembly of "the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven", gathered around Jesus, mediator of a new covenant, who grants our dignity as children of God.

Continuing his work

Early into his ministry Jesus sent out the twelve he had chosen to share in his work. He sent them out to do what he has been doing, to preach the gospel and to heal the sick. He needed the help of others to do the work he had been sent to do. He continues to need us today to do his work. We are to be his eyes, his ears, his hands, his feet and his voice. As risen Lord he wants to work in and through us. Paul described the church as the body of Christ in the world. Every member of Christ's body had a vital role to play. The church could not fulfil its proper function unless everyone plays the role to which they are called through their baptism.

Each one has a unique contribution to make to the life of the church. Each of us is indispensible and necessary. The letter to the Hebrews puts it like this: In the church everyone is a "first-born child" and a "citizen of heaven." There are to be no second-class citizens in the church. Each of us is a vital member of Christ's body, sent by the Lord to continue his mission in the world.

Friday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 13:1-8

A call to hospitality, contentment, care of prisoners and the persecuted

Let mutual love continue. Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for by doing that some have entertained angels without knowing it. Remember those who are in prison, as though you were in prison with them; those who are being tortured, as though you yourselves were being tortured. Let marriage be held in honour by all, and let the marriage bed be kept undefiled; for God will judge fornicators and adulterers. Keep your lives free from the love of money, and be content with what you have; for he has said, "I will never leave you or forsake you." So we can say with confidence, "The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can anyone do to me?"

Remember your leaders, those who spoke the word of God to you; consider the outcome of their way of life, and imitate their faith. Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.

Responsorial: Ps 26:1, 3, 5, 8-9

R./: The Lord is my light and my salvation

The Lord is my light and my help;
 whom shall I fear?
The Lord is the stronghold of my life;
 before whom shall I shrink? (R./)

Though an army encamp against me
 my heart would not fear.
Though war break out against me
 even then would I trust. (R./)

For there he keeps me safe in his tent
 in the day of evil.
He hides me in the shelter of his tent,
 on a rock he sets me safe. (R./)

It is your face, O Lord, that I seek;
 hide not your face.
 Dismiss not your servant in anger;
 you have been my help. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 6:14-29

Background to the martyrdom of John the Baptist

King Herod heard of it, for Jesus' name had become known. Some were saying, "John the baptizer has been raised from the dead; and for this reason these powers are at work in him." But others said, "It is Elijah." And others said, "It is a prophet, like one of the prophets of old." But when Herod heard of it, he said, "John, whom I beheaded, has been raised."

For Herod himself had sent men who arrested John, bound him, and put him in prison on account of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, because Herod had married her. For John had been telling Herod, "It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife." And Herodias had a grudge against him, and wanted to kill him. But she could not, for Herod feared John, knowing that he was a righteous and holy man, and he protected him. When he heard him, he was greatly perplexed; and yet he liked to listen to him. But an opportunity came when Herod on his birthday gave a banquet for his courtiers and officers and for the leaders of Galilee. When the daughter of Herodias came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his guests; and the king said to the girl, "Ask me for whatever you wish, and I will give it." And he solemnly swore to her, "Whatever you ask me, I will give you, even half of my kingdom." She went out and said to her mother, "What should I ask for?" She replied, "The head of John the baptizer." Immediately she rushed back to the king and requested, "I want you to give me at once the head of John the Baptist on a platter." The king was deeply grieved; yet out of regard for his oaths and for the guests, he did not want to refuse her. Immediately the king sent a soldier of the guard with orders to bring John's head. He went and beheaded him in the prison, brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the girl. Then the girl gave it to her mother. When his disciples heard about it, they came and took his body, and laid it in a tomb.


Contrasting colours

The contrasting motivations between the readings today remind one of the contrast of colours in the famous novel by Stendahl (Marie-Henri Beyle) Le Rouge et le Noir. In Hebrews we have the exhortation,"Let mutual love continue. Do not neglect hospitality" .. a fine, heartfelt invitation to all that is best in Christianity. What a contrast with the brutal play of passions: lust, resentment, cynicism and callous violence that led to the beheading of John the Baptist.

Herod's superficial hedonism, publicly condemned by the Baptist, led him step by step to this tragic execution. Urged on by the venom of Herodias and the licentious dancing of her daughter (who may have been called Salome), and prevented by human respect from protecting one whom he regarded as a good man, the venal king sent a soldier of the guard with orders to bring John's head. What a far cry from the ideals of love, hospitality, honouring marriage and living a life of simple dignity, as counselled in the epistle. But even in this moment of dire crisis and in danger of his life, John the Baptist must have renewed his act of faith with that ultimate Psalm of promise, "The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can anyone do to me?"

Herod's banquet

Today's gospel scene has inspired artists and playwrights over the centuries. The sumptuous banquet in Herod's palace for his birthday turns out to be a banquet of death. Mark follows this scene with the feeding by Jesus of the multitude in the wilderness. It is as if the evangelist wants to set Herod banquet of death over against Jesus' banquet of life. John the Baptist is described in the gospel as a "good and holy man." He courageously spoke God's truth, God's way, and that is why he was beheaded. Jesus was crucified for the same reason, because he proclaimed God's ways, God's purposess, by what he said and did. We are all called to proclaim the ways of God as revealed to us by Jesus. That will call for courage at times, the courage displayed by John the Baptist and Jesus. One of the traditional seven gifts of the Holy Spirit is courage. Today, more than in the past, we need a courageous faith; we need the courage of the Holy Spirit to witness to the values of the gospel, as John and Jesus did. A courageous faith is not an arrogant faith, but it is a firm faith, an enduring faith, a faith that holds firm when the storms come because its roots are deep. We pray today for the gift of such a faith, the kind of faithfulness that shaped John's life and death.

Saturday of Week 4

1st Reading: Hebrews 13:15-17, 20-21

God raised up Jesus, the great Shepherd of the sheep

Through him, let us continually offer a sacrifice of praise to God, that is, the fruit of lips that confess his name. Do not neglect to do good and to share what you have, for such sacrifices are pleasing to God. Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they are keeping watch over your souls and will give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with sighing, for that would be harmful to you.

Now may the God of peace, who brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, the great shepherd of the sheep, by the blood of the eternal covenant, make you complete in everything good so that you may do his will, working among us that which is pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.

Responsorial: Psalm 22

R./: The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want

The Lord is my shepherd, there is nothing I shall want.
Fresh and green are the pastures
 where he gives me repose.
 Near restful waters he leads me,
 to revive my drooping spirit. (R./)

He guides me along the right path;
 he is true to his name.
 If I should walk in the valley of darkness
 no evil would I fear.
You are there with your crook and your staff;
 with these you give me comfort. (R./)

You have prepared a banquet for me
 in the sight of my foes.
 My head you have anointed with oil;
 my cup is overflowing. (R./)

Surely goodness and kindness shall follow me
 all the days of my life.
 In the Lord's own house shall I dwell
 for ever and ever. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 6:30-34

Jesus takes the apostles aside. The people are as sheep without a shepherd

The apostles gathered around Jesus, and told him all that they had done and taught. He said to them, "Come away to a deserted place all by yourselves and rest a while." For many were coming and going, so that they had no leisure even to eat. And they went away in the boat to a deserted place by themselves. Now many saw them going and recognized them, and they hurried there on foot from all the towns and arrived ahead of them.

As he went ashore, he saw a great crowd; and he had compassion for them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd; and he began to teach them many things.


What to hope for in church leaders

For almost five decades, Catholic bishops have been chosen directly by the Holy See, with little or no input from the clergy or laity of the diocese they are to serve. While this promotes uniformity of doctrine and practice, it undermines the sense of co-responsibility on the part of the local clergy. We might reflect on what Bishops are for, in light of today's readings, with Jesus as the true shepherd of God's flock. While the authority of Jesus is greater than any church leader, a truly pastoral bishop can enhance our sense of belonging to God's People, the Church. The bishop's task is to build and foster among the people both the reality and the perception of communion and personal involvement.

As Jesus looked around on the crowd, he had compassion on them, for they were like sheep without a shepherd. His response was to animate them by his teaching, and feed them through the sharing miracle of the loaves and fishes. Responding with love to the people's deepest needs is the vocation of all who are privileged to share in his ministry.

"A deep sense of communion will protect a new bishop from becoming too full of himself and too impressed with his status, title or attire. He is to teach and to lead his people as a loving shepherd; to be both father and brother. And he does this most excellently when he presides at the Eucharist, in the midst of the people of the diocese." (Martin Brown). Later he writes, "a diocese is a local Church and not just an administrative unit. A bishop is a representative of Christ, not just a branch manager. They have lost most of the power they used to have, which is no bad thing, but we need a renewed sense of who and what exactly bishops are, if they are to foster communion." For the health and coherence of our beloved Church, we pray that the spirit of the Good Shepherd will deeply animate the bishops who are charged with shepherding his flock today.

When plans go awry

So many of our plans do not work out as hoped. On an everyday level, we might plan to get something done and it does not work out. On a grander scale, some master plan for our future does not materialize. We can respond in different ways to things not working out. In today's gospel, Jesus' plans for himself and his disciples had to be changed in a hurry. He meant to take them away to a quiet place to be all by themselves, because they were so busy they had no time even to eat. But when they got to the quiet place, he it had become a crowded place; the crowd had got there ahead of them.

Jesus was not annoyed by this unexpected interruption; instead, he had compassion on the crowd and engaged with them. His plans did not work out, but something else happened that better served God's purpose. When our own plans fail to materialize, something better can take their place, which would not have happened otherwise. The Lord's purpose is always greater than our plans. Whenever we have to let go of our plans, the Lord's purpose will still prevail.

Readings for the 5th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 1:1-19

God creates light, sky, earth and sun, moon and stars, in the act of creation

In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. Then God said, "Let there be light" and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.

And God said, "Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters." So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.

And God said, "Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear." And it was so. God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. Then God said, "Let the earth put forth vegetation: plants yielding seed, and fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it." And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation: plants yielding seed of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.

And God said, "Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth." And it was so. God made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night, and the stars. God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.

Responsorial: Psalm 103:1-2, 5-6, 10, 12, 24, 35

R./: May the Lord be glad in his works

Bless the Lord, my soul.
 Lord God, how great you are,
 clothed in majesty and glory,
 wrapped in light as in a robe. (R./)

You founded the earth on its base,
 to stand firm from age to age.
You wrapped it with the ocean like a cloak:
 the waters stood higher than the mountains. (R./)

You make springs gush forth in the valleys:
 they flow in between the hills.
 On their banks dwell the birds of heaven;
 from the branches they sing their song. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 6:53-56

The sick were brought to Jesus and whoever touched him with faith was healed

Having made the crossing, Jesus and his disciples came came to land at Gennesaret and moored the boat. When they got out of the boat, people at once recognized him, and rushed about that whole region and began to bring the sick on mats to wherever they heard he was. And wherever he went, into villages or cities or farms, the people laid the sick in the marketplaces, and begged him that they might touch even the fringe of his cloak; and all who touched it were healed.


God's world and ours

Genesis gives a wide-angle view of the universe as the sanctuary or throne for God's presence. All religious ceremonies, whether in the temple or on the sanctuaries in our churches, must keep contact with the physical world of earth and sky, and remind us of God's redemptive acts to give us life. At the same time, without regular liturgy we can lose sight of the divine presence in our universe and in our daily living. Each facet of creation is a response to God's word, "Let there be light, let there be a sky in the middle of waters, let there be lights in the dome of the sky." And God saw that it was good, all that results from his creative word.

But even in God's good world there are many dark spots, of sickness, disorder, grief and injustice. In today's reading from Mark we see the healing touch of Jesus at work, bringing hope and consolation to those who were sick. He calls his followers, ourselves, to be like himself, instruments of God to cleanse and revive our good world. Our efforts of kindness and love extend the range of Jesus' healing touch; our words of forgiveness and encouragement echo the word of God. We go out as instruments of blessing, at the end of each Eucharistic liturgy, to carry on God's creative work in our real world.

Even the fringe of his cloak

Mark shows the popularity of Jesus among the ordinary people of Galilee. In particular, he attracted the sick and broken, because God's healing power was so clearly at work through him. People begged him to let him touch even the fringe of his cloak, as the woman had done who was healed of her flow of blood. People were hurrying to bring the sick to him. The poor and the needy were especially desperate to get near him and to connect with him.

In our own lives too, it is in our need that we seek out the Lord most urgently. Something happens that brings home to us our vulnerability, our inability to manage on our own. In those situations, we seek God's help with an urgency born of need. It is the painful experiences that open us up to the Lord. When Paul was struggling with his "thorn in the flesh," he heard the risen Lord say to him, "My power is made perfect in weakness." Our weakness can be the portal through which we reach out to the Lord and experience the power of his healing.

Tuesday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 1:20, 2:4

After forming man and woman to the divine likeness, God rested on the seventh day

God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky." So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, of every kind, with which the waters swarm, and every winged bird of every kind. And God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth." And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.

And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth of every kind." And it was so. God made the wild animals of the earth of every kind, and the cattle of every kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground of every kind. And God saw that it was good.

Then God said, "Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth." So God created humankind in his image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. God blessed them, and God said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth." God said, "See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food." And it was so. God saw everything that hehad made, and indeed, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude. And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all the work that he had done. So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all the work that he had done in creation. These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

Responsorial: Psalm 8:4-9

R./: O Lord our God, how wonderful your name in all the earth

When I see the heavens,
 the work of your hands,
 the moon and the stars which you arranged,
 what is man that you should keep him in mind,
 mortal man that you care for him? (R./)

Yet you have made him little less than a god;
 with glory and honour you crowned him,
 gave him power over the works of your hand,
 put all things under his feet. (R./)

All of them, sheep and cattle,
 yes, even the savage beasts,
 birds of the air, and fish
 that make their way through the waters. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 7:1-13

Not letting tradition nullify the plain sense of God's word

The Pharisees and some scribes who had come from Jerusalem gathered round Jesus, and they noticed that some of his disciples were eating with defiled hands, that is, without washing them. (For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, do not eat unless they thoroughly wash their hands, thus observing the tradition of the elders; and they do not eat anything from the market unless they wash it; and there are also many other traditions that they observe, the washing of cups, pots, and bronze kettles.) So the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, "Why do your disciples not live according to the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?" He said to them, "Isaiah prophesied rightly about you hypocrites, as it is written,'This people honours me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me; in vain do they worship me, teaching human precepts as doctrines.' You abandon the commandment of God and hold to human tradition."

Then he said to them, "You have a fine way of rejecting the commandment of God in order to keep your tradition. For Moses said, 'honour your father and your mother;' and, 'Whoever speaks evil of father or mother must surely die.' But you say that if anyone tells father or mother, 'Whatever support you might have had from me is Corban' (that is, an offering to God), then you no longer permit doing anything for a father or mother, thus making void the word of God through your tradition that you have handed on. And you do many things like this."


Where God is found

Genesis continues to proclaim the sacredness of the created world, now extending to the creation of human beings. As the pinnacle of creation, according to the priestly author of this first chapter, God crowns his work by forming humankind to the divine image. Male and female, "in the image of God he created them." While each other stage was "good", the inspired author says that after creating humankind, God "found it very good." Along with exalting the status of human beings as the pinnacle of creation, this text also suggests that the interplay of the sexes in marriage and the family becomes a significant image of God's inner being, and here God must continue to be present.

After this ultimate of all works on the sixth day, God proceeds to "rest from all the work he had done" and so "blessed the seventh day." This is not a withdrawal from his newly created world in order to rest, but rather God rests in the midst of all its beauty and goodness. The world is God's true temple and church; the sound of wind and surf, thunder and birdsong are hymns of praise.

This is the background for today's gospel, to understand why Jesus spoke as he did. He blames the Pharisees and lawyers for artificially setting aside God's will [that we respect and appreciate the world as it is] "just for the sake of keeping your traditions." To wash and clean our food before eating is of course good, but not just because it's traditional. If a custom only leads to a better-than-thou attitude, it ignores our duty to respect each other, as the human family made in God's likeness. Jesus opposes the raising of barriers between one group and another. He could not tolerate class-distinctions that divide and split us apart. Anyone promoting divisiveness needs to remember the warning : "This people pays me lip service but their heart is far from me."

Not chained by tradition

Jesus accuses some Jewish leaders of putting aside the will of God, so as to cling to tradition. He saw how many traditions in his time did not correspond to basic values in the Scriptures. The church needs to ensure that our traditions conform to the Gospel spirit. Every so often our church has to renew itself, with the help of the Holy Spirit, and purify its practices, to correspond more closely to the spirit of Jesus.

Our own personal habits too, whether in our religious practice, or our habitual ways of dealing with others, are always in need of reform in the light of the gospel. We need to keep on applying the message of Jesus to the changing situation of our lives, and trust the Holy Spirit to help us to do so.

Wednesday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 2:4-9, 15-17

God creates Adam and sets him in the garden to cultivate it

These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.

In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, when no plant of the field was yet in the earth and no herb of the field had yet sprung up, for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no one to till the ground; but a stream would rise from the earth, and water the whole face of the ground, then the Lord God formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and the man became a living being.

The Lord God planted a garden in Eden, in the east; and there he put the man whom he had formed. Out of the ground the Lord God made to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

The Lord God took the man and put him in the garden of Eden to till it and keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, "You may freely eat of every tree of the garden; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall die."

Responsorial: Psalm 103:1-2, 27-30

R./: Bless the Lord, my soul

Bless the Lord my soul.
 Lord God, how great you are,
 clothed in majesty and glory,
 wrapped in light as in a robe. (R./)

All of these look to you
 to give them their food in due season.
You give it, they gather it up:
 you open your hand, they have their fill. (R./)

You take back your spirit, they die,
 returning from the dust from which they came.
You send forth your spirit, they are created;
 and you renew the face of the earth. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 7:14-23

What renders us impure is not what enters us from outside but what's in our heart

Jesus called the crowd again and said to them, "Listen to me, all of you, and understand: there is nothing outside a person that by going in can defile, but the things that come out are what defile."

When he had left the crowd and entered the house, his disciples asked him about the parable. He said to them, "Then do you also fail to understand? Do you not see that whatever goes into a person from outside cannot defile, since it enters, not the heart but the stomach, and goes out into the sewer?" (Thus he declared all foods clean.) And he said, "It is what comes out of a person that defiles. For it is from within, from the human heart, that evil intentions come: fornication, theft, murder, adultery, avarice, wickedness, deceit, licentiousness, envy, slander, pride, folly. All these evil things come from within, and they defile a person."


Wisdom from above

Genesis describes how Eden was planted with all kinds of delightful things to eat and Adam being put there to cultivate and care for it. Within the garden was the tree of knowledge of good and evil whose fruit he must not eat; Adam was meant to exercise self-control and recognise certain boundaries. Jesus developes the idea that external things are part of God's good creation. What we are able to eat or drink are healthy gifts from the God of life. Evil comes from within the human heart. Crimes and offenses which corrode and corrupt the world come from man's undisciplined heart.

The story-teller of Genesis tells how Adam needed God to breathe into him the breath of life; and how the garden was not made by Adam but was given to him by God. The wisdom to make the best use of the world also comes from above. It is a wisdom that includes a humble and loving care for the earth along with prudence to control our selfish or destructive instincts. A sensitivity towards God, an awareness that life is a gift, and a desire to praise and worship our Maker, all this belongs to the wisdom that comes from above.

Without wisdom, evil can entice us away from the right path. Jesus names some evil tendencies, almost the reverse of the ten commandments: fornication, theft, murder, greed, arrogance, an obtuse spirit. The wisdom we need must be open to the breath of God's Holy Spirit. The foundation of every good life is an intuitive wisdom, the fruit of living prayerfully in God's presence and of willingly responding to the movements of God's spirit within us.

The deep heart's core

When reflecting on idyllic days on the Isle of Inishfree, Yeats heard its echoes in his deep heart's core. The heart is a powerful, traditional symbol for our deepest feelings and emotions, Jesus takes a somewhat more nuanced, moral view of what lies hiddent in the heart. Along with being capable of love and loyalty, the heart can be the seat of evil intentions, intentions that are damaging and destructive of others. The heart is the person's inner core and it has many dimensions of light and shade; it can be a reservoir for good and for harm.

One of the most popular images of our faith in the past has been the Sacred Heart. Its message was to declare that at God's inner being was a totally selfless love, that was best revealed in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus. This love was creative and life-giving. Our hearts need to reflect the heart of Jesus, somehow sharing in God's inner core. Our fundamental calling is well captured in that simple but profound prayer, "Come Holy Spirit, fill my heart, and kindle in me the fire of your love."

Thursday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 2:18-25

Woman stands equal to man, as they are joined as one flesh

The Lord God said, "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a helper as his partner." So out of the ground the Lord God formed every animal of the field and every bird of the air, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called every living creature, that was its name. The man gave names to all cattle, and to the birds of the air, and to every animal of the field; but for the man there was not found a helper as his partner. So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then he took one of his ribs and closed up its place with flesh. And the rib that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman and brought her to the man. Then the man said, "This at last is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; this one shall be called Woman, for out of Man this one was taken."

Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and clings to his wife, and they become one flesh. And the man and his wife were both naked, and were not ashamed.

Responsorial: Psalm 127:1-5

R./: Happy are those who fear the Lord

O blessed are those who fear the Lord
 and walk in his ways.
By the labour of your hands you shall eat.
You will be happy and prosper. (R./)

Your wife like a fruitful vine
 in the heart of your house;
 your children like shoots of the olive
 around your table. (R./)

Indeed thus shall be blessed
 the man who fears the Lord.
 May the Lord bless you from Zion
 all the days of your life. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 7:24-30

By persevering faith, a Syro-Phoenician woman gets Jesus to cure her daughter

Jesus set out and went away to the region of Tyre. He entered a house and did not want anyone to know he was there. Yet he could not escape notice, but a woman whose little daughter had an unclean spirit immediately heard about him, and she came and bowed down at his feet. Now the woman was a Gentile of Syro-phoenician origin. She begged him to cast the demon out of her daughter. He said to her, "Let the children be fed first, for it is not fair to take the children's food and throw it to the dogs." But she answered him, "Sir, even the dogs under the table eat the children's crumbs." The he said to her, "For saying that, you may go, the demon has left your daughter." So she went home, found the child lying on the bed, and the demon gone.


Generosity between the sexes

Women are centre-stage in today's readings. The first woman, Eve, heals the loneliness of the first man, Adam, corresponding to him in a way that no other creature could, and the two are united as equals, in one flesh. While the Jews knew how women bring joy and fulfilment stability into the life of men, they regarded pagan women as responsible for apostasy in Israel. Then in the gospel a pagan woman surprises Jesus with her faith and humble perseverance.

Today more than in the past we ponder on the rightful relationship between the sexes, in family, friendship, in the workplace and in social situations. Our differences as men and women help us to complement each other and challenge each other to grow. Genesis suggests that either the woman or the man in isolation would be deficient and incomplete. The union by which they complement one another enables the image of God in both of them to flourish. In this way marriage sets the pattern for all human friendship and community.

Many of the women in the Scriptures can be models for men as well as for women, just as men provide examples for both women and men. What is scattered and fragmented must be reunited in Jesus, for as Paul says: "among you it is no longer Jew or Greek, slave or free, male or female, for all are one in Christ Jesus" (Gal 3:28-29). In a radical way, belonging to Jesus heals all fragmentation arising from sex and gender.

Adam exclaimed, "This is bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh." If a spouse needs to leave father and mother and cling to the other, each has a divine mandate to put nothing before one's loyalty to the other. The words of Jesus apply: There is no greater love than this, to lay down one's life for one's friends (John 15:13). In times of crisis, spouses may need to remember his other saying: "Whoever tries to preserve their life will lose it; whoever loses it will keep it" (Luke 17:33). Not only do we not put anyone else before our spouse, but we may be called on to sacrifice ourselves for their sake.

Disarmed by humility

Focus on one thing can cause us to neglect another. Even Jesus seems reluctant to divert attention away from his own chosen people, Israel, to attend to the pagan woman. There is no simple way to soften the harsh reply of Jesus, except perhaps that he would not repeat the mistakes of Solomon who was led astray by foreign women.

The words of apparent rejection are disarmed by the woman's humility, perseverance and love for her child. Not for selfish pleasure or personal gain, but for the sake of her daughter, does the woman turn aside Jesus' harsh words by replying: "but even the dogs under the table eat the family's leavings." This answer overcomes his first objections, and Jesus heals the woman's daughter, a splendid example of gentle perseverance rewarded.

Friday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 3:1-8

Woman and man disobey God and try to hide from him in the garden

The serpent was more crafty than any other wild animal that the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, "Did God say, 'You shall not eat from any tree in the garden'?" The woman said to the serpent, "We may eat of the fruit of the trees in the garden; but God said, 'You shall not eat of the fruit of the tree that is in the middle of the garden, nor shall you touch it, or you shall die.'" But the serpent said to the woman, "You will not die; for God knows that when you eat of it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." So when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of its fruit and ate; and she also gave some to her husband, who was with her, and he ate. Then the eyes of both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made loincloths for themselves.

They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden at the time of the evening breeze, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden.

Responsorial: Psalm 31:1-2, 5-7

R./: Happy are those who sins are forgiven

Happy the man whose offence is forgiven,
 whose sin is remitted.
 O happy the man to whom the Lord imputes no guilt,
in whose spirit is no guile. (R./)

But now I have acknowledged my sins;
 my guilt I did not hide.
 I said: 'I will confess my offence to the Lord.'
 And you, Lord, have forgiven the guilt of my sin. (R./)

So let every good man pray to you
 in the time of need.
The floods of water may reach high
 but him they shall not reach. (R./)

You are my hiding place, O Lord;
 you save me from distress.
You surround me with cries of deliverance. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 7:31-37

Jesus cures a man who was deaf and dumb

Jesus returned from the region of Tyre, and went by way of Sidon towards the Sea of Galilee, in the region of the Decapolis. They brought to him a deaf man who had an impediment in his speech; and they begged him to lay his hand on him. He took him aside in private, away from the crowd, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spat and touched his tongue. Then looking up to heaven, he sighed and said to him, "Ephphatha," that is, "Be opened." And immediately his ears were opened, his tongue was released, and he spoke plainly. Then Jesus ordered them to tell no one; but the more he ordered them, the more zealously they proclaimed it. They were astounded beyond measure, saying, "He has done everything well; he even makes the deaf to hear and the mute to speak."


Paradise lost and regained

Genesis describes how Paradise was lost, while the gospel tells of of paradise regained. In the "Paradise Lost" story , the man and woman have lost their original innocence. Until their sin with the Tree of Knowledge, they had felt totally at ease in each other's company. They had loved and honoured each other as created to the image of God, but now the felt ashamed of being naked.

There is a sense of paradise restored in the story about Jesus curing the deaf and dumb man. He put his fingers in the man's ears and touched his tongue with saliva, then looked up to heaven with a groan of petition. Jesus' words and compassion, even his distressed groan over the man's disability, show how the dumb man was restored to full health.

It is likely that Mark intends this scene as paradise regained. The phrase, "he makes the deaf hear and the mute speak" is from a sparkling prophecy of Isaiah, that "those whom the Lord has ransomed will return and enter Zion singing, crowned with everlasting joy." The Messianic age is near. "Here is your God, he comes to save you. Then will the eyes of the blind be opened, the ears of the deaf be cleared" (Isa 35:5).

In this cure, there is a hint of universal salvation. Just the two paradises, lost and regained. In Genesis, the man and the woman realized that they were naked and felt ashamed. In the gospel, once the man is healed, every other impediment is dropped. With spontaneous joy he forgets the order to tell nobody. Not only the man himself but the whole neighbourhood knows what Jesus has done. The gospel has almost a playful reference to the Messianic Secret, for when Jesus told them not to tell anyone; the more strictly he ordered secrecy, the more they proclaimed it.

On leaving paradise Adam and Eve covered themselves with leaves, each needing a barrier of some kind against the other. Fear and mistrust now spoil their former spontaneity. By contrast, the man who had been deaf and dumb now tosses inhibition to the wind, dancing, singing, shouting and proclaiming the good news. For this sense of Paradise lost and regained, we give thanks to God, source of all our good.

Valuing our senses

We should not take for granted the fact that we can see, hear, smell, touch and speak. It is only when we (or someone close to us) lose one of our senses that realize how precious those gifts are. Because they are such wonderful gifts let's ask ourselves how well we use our senses.

A deaf man with an impediment in his speech is brought to Jesus. There can be a link between the two disabilities. Inability to hear can affect our ability to speak. First, Jesus opened the man's ears, and later enabled him to speak clearly.

Even with the full use of our senses, the quality of our speaking is somehow related to the quality of our hearing. The better our listening, the better we'll be at speaking. We need to listen to each other if we are to speak usefully to each other. As preachers, we need to listen to the word of the Lord if we are to speak it to others. It is only in listening to him that he can speak through us.

Saturday of Week 5

1st Reading: Genesis 3:9-24

The Lord sentences the serpent, and Adam and Eve are expelled from the garden

The Lord God called to the man, and said to him, "Where are you?" He said, "I heard the sound of you in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself." He said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?" The man said, "The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and I ate." Then the Lord God said to the woman, "What is this that you have done?" The woman said, "The serpent tricked me, and I ate."

The Lord God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, cursed are you among all animals and among all wild creatures; upon your belly you shall go, and dust you shall eat all the days of your life. I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and hers; he will strike your head, and you will strike his heel."

To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pangs in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children, yet your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you."

And to the man he said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree about which I commanded you, 'You shall not eat of it,' cursed is the ground because of you; in toil you shall eat of it all the days of your life; thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you; and you shall eat the plants of the field. By the sweat of your face you shall eat bread until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken; you are dust, and to dust you shall return."

The man named his wife Eve, because she was the mother of all living. And the Lord God made garments of skins for the man and for his wife, and clothed them.

Then the Lord God said, "See, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might reach out his hand and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever", therefore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which he was taken. He drove out the man; and at the east of the garden of Eden he placed the cherubim, and a sword flaming and turning to guard the way to the tree of life.

Responsorial: Psalm 89:2-6, 12-13

R./: In every age, O Lord, you have been our refuge

Before the mountains were born
 or the earth or the world brought forth,
 you are God, without beginning or end. (R./)

You turn men back into dust and say:
 'Go back, sons of men.'
To your eyes a thousand years are like yesterday, come and gone,
 no more than a watch in the night. (R./)

You sweep men away like a dream,
 like grass which springs up in the morning.
 In the morning it springs up and flowers:
 by evening it withers and fades. (R./)

Make us know the shortness of our life
 that we may gain wisdom of heart.
 Lord, relent. Is your anger for ever?
Show pity on your servants. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:1-10

Jesus multiplies bread and fish for about four thousand people

A great crowd had gathered, and they had nothing to eat. So Jesus called his disciples to him and said to them, "I have compassion for the crowd, because they have been with me now for three days and have nothing to eat. If I send them away hungry to their homes, they will faint on the way, and some of them have come from a great distance." His disciples replied, "How can one feed these people with bread here in the desert?"

Jesus asked them, "How many loaves do you have?" They said, "Seven." Then he ordered the crowd to sit down on the ground; and he took the seven loaves, and after giving thanks he broke them and gave them to his disciples to distribute; and they distributed them to the crowd. They had also a few small fish; and after blessing them, he ordered that these too should be distributed. They ate and were filled; and they took up the broken pieces left over, seven baskets full. Now there were about four thousand people. And he sent them away. And immediately he got into the boat with his discipls and went to the district of Dalmanutha.


Interplay of death and life

Genesis tells how our first parents are sentenced to return to the ground from which you were taken. On a more optimistic note the gospel seems to reverse this sentence.. The men and women who came out into the desert to hear Jesus are so famished that if he sends them away without food, they will collapse with the hunger. So he multiplies bread and fish, and they all return not to the earth but to their homes, with renewed vigour. In the beginning Adam and Eve ate the forbidden food and died; in the gospel their children eat the bread of life and live.

The interplay of death and life in these readings prompts us to think. The earth itself is not evil, since from it God moulded the first man and woman, and it continues to bear fruit, such as the bread and the fish with which Jesus fed the people. In Genesis we find the original humans falling away from God. Driven by pride and an overweening ambition to control all things, the man and woman sinned, providing the prototype of all subsequent sins. But the roots of sin are not "out there" but deep within ourselves, in the choices we make.

How quickly and simply today's gospel story ends. After the miracle of feeding the four thousand from seven loaves of bread and a few fishes, the party soon ends. Jesus dismissed the crowd and got into the boat with his disciples to go across to Dalmanutha. Driven by compassion, not ambition, Jesus did not make a living from miracles. The joy of seeing others restored was enough for him.

Readings for the 6th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 6 ##

1st Reading: Genesis 4:1-15

Cain's jealousy leads to his murder of Abel

Now the man knew his wife Eve, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, "I have produced a man with the help of the Lord." Next she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a tiller of the ground. In the course of time Cain brought to the Lord an offering of the fruit of the ground, and Abel for his part brought of the firstlings of his flock, their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and his offering, but for Cain and his offering he had no regard. So Cain was very angry, and his countenance fell. The Lord said to Cain, "Why are you angry, and why has your countenance fallen? If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin is lurking at the door; its desire is for you, but you must master it."

Cain said to his brother Abel, "Let us go out to the field." And when they were in the field, Cain rose up against his brother Abel, and killed him. Then the Lord said to Cain, "Where is your brother Abel?" He said, I do not know; am I my brother's keeper?" And the Lord said, "What have you done? Listen; your brother's blood is crying out to me from the ground. And now you are cursed from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand. When you till the ground, it will no longer yield to you its strength; you will be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth." Cain said to the Lord, "My punishment is greater than I can bear. Today you have driven me away from the soil, and I shall be hidden from your face; I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer on the earth, and anyone who meets me may kill me." Then the Lord said to him, "Not so. Whoever kills Cain will suffer a sevenfold vengeance." And the Lord put a mark on Cain, so that no one who came upon him would kill him.

Adam knew his wife again, and she bore a son and named him Seth, for she said, "God has appointed for me another child instead of Abel, because Cain killed him."

Responsorial: Psalm 49:1, 8, 16-17, 20-21

R./: Offer to God a sacrifice of praise

The God of gods, the Lord,
 has spoken and summoned the earth,
 from the rising of the sun to its setting.
 I find no fault with your sacrifices,
 your offerings are always before me. (R./)

But how can you recite my commandments
 and take my covenant on your lips,
 you who despise my law
 and throw my words to the winds. (R./)

You who sit and malign your brother
 and slander your own mother's son.
You do this, and should I keep silence?
 Do you think that I am like you? (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:11-13

Jesus refuses to give spectacular signs

The Pharisees came and began to argue with him, asking him for a sign from heaven, to test him. And he sighed deeply in his spirit and said, "Why does this generation ask for a sign? Truly I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation." And he left them, and getting into the boat again, he went across to the other side.


God's kingdom is reflected in ordinary things

St Mark refers more often to the emotions of Jesus than any other evangelist. In today's reading, Mark states that Jesus responded to the Pharisees' request for a sign from heaven "with a sigh that came straight from the heart." That sigh led to the question, "Why does this generation demand a sign?" We can almost sense the frustration of Jesus in that sigh, straight from the heart. Religious people are often tempted to search breathlessly for signs from heaven, to long for and emphasise the extra-ordinary and unusual. Jesus always directs us towards the ordinary, the sower who goes out to sow his field, the woman who looks for her lost coin, the care given to a stranger on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, the man who unexpectedly finds treasure in his field, and so on. It is in the ordinary that the mystery of God's kingdom is to be found, because God's good creation of full of God's glory.

A faith that is tested

If faith is at the centre of biblical religion, we must seek what is the heart of faith. From the gospel we learn that faith does not revolve around miracles. When jealous and suspicious people test Jesus and demand some heavenly sign, he sighs about the weakness of their faith. St James urges us to cope with every sort of trial, for "When faith is tested this makes for endurance, so that you may be fully mature."

Cain might run away from his family but he could not run away from God. "The Lord put a mark on Cain," a mark of divine protection, a pledge of the Creator's fidelity to all he has made. When some people responded to Jesus with suspicion and envy, he left them and went off. Such dispositions do not keep Jesus in our midst; he remains only with people of faith, compassion and forgiveness.

Tuesday of Week 6

1st Reading: Genesis 6:5-8; 7:1-5, 10

The universal flood; the Lord's regret at creating the human race

The Lord saw that the wickedness of humankind was great in the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts was only evil continually. And the Lord was sorry that he had made humankind on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart. So the Lord said, "I will blot out from the earth the human beings I have created, people together with animals and creeping things and birds of the air, for I am sorry that I have made them." But Noah found favour in the sight of the Lord.

Then the Lord said to Noah, "Go into the ark, you and all your household, for I have seen that you alone are righteous before me in this generation. Take with you seven pairs of all clean animals, the male and its mate; and a pair of the animals that are not clean, the male and its mate; and seven pairs of the birds of the air also, male and female, to keep their kind alive on the face of all the earth. For in seven days I will send rain on the earth for forty days and forty nights; and every living thing that I have made I will blot out from the face of the ground." And Noah did all that the Lord had commanded him. And after seven days the waters of the flood came on the earth.

Responsorial: Psalm 28:1-4, 9-10

R./: The Lord will bless his people with peace

O give the Lord you sons of God,
 give the Lord glory and power;
 give the Lord the glory of his name.
 Adore the Lord in his holy court. (R./)

The Lord's voice resounding on the waters,
 the Lord on the immensity of the waters;
 the voice of the Lord, full of power,
 the voice of the Lord, full of splendour. (R./)

The God of glory thunders.
 In his temple they all cry: 'Glory.'
The Lord sat enthroned over the flood;
 the Lord sits as king for ever. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:14-21

Jesus is amazed at the blindness of his disciples

The disciples had forgotten to bring any bread; and they had only one loaf with them in the boat. Then Jesus gave them this warning, "Watch out, beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod." They said to one another, "It is because we have no bread." And becoming aware of it, Jesus said to them, "Why are you talking about having no bread? Do you still not perceive or understand? Are your hearts hardened? Do you have eyes, and fail to see? Do you have ears, and fail to hear? And do you not remember? When I broke the five loaves for the five thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you collect?" They said to him, "Twelve." "And the seven for the four thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you collect?" And they said to him, "Seven." Then he said to them, "Do you not yet understand?"


A Word Deeply Rooted

On first reading today's texts are about external things: Noah escapes from the flood that covered the earth while in Mark the disciples are worried that they have too little bread, as they set sail across the Sea of Galilee. Our own reflections, and our theology also, must also begin from what is visible and tangible. It is the sight of the poor and the oppressed that stirs us into considering what place or purpose suffering may have in the wise providence of God. The behaviour of the people in Noah's time provoked regret in God's heart and that phrase in Genesis raises all sorts of theological problems: how can God regret? Did he see the creation of mankind as a mistake? Is there room for change in the divine mind? Similarly in the gospel Jesus;' response to the disciples turns into a volley of questions which evinces surprise on Jesus;' part that his followers acted as they did: "Do you still not see or comprehend? Are your minds completely blind? Have you eyes but no sight, ears but no hearing? Do you not remember how I broke the five loaves…?" The gospel ends on the question: "Do you still not understand?"

We begin with the externals but we must go beyond them too. Biblical interpretation must not get bogged down arguing about the externals, as in the case of Noah's flood: did it really cover the earth? Could all those animals have been contained within the ark? etc. Even if archaeology suggests that mammoth floods swept across large areas in Mesopotamia and gave rise to various flood sagas, these stories show people struggling with theological issues too. The flood story in Genesis begins with the dispositions of the human heart; for when the Lord saw how much wickedness was on earth, and how no human desire was even anything but evil, he regretted having made man, "and his heart was grieved." The Scriptures move from external actions to human desires and to regret in God's heart.

Disciples like ourselves

In the gospel today, Jesus seems very frustrated with is own disciples. In spite of all he has said and done in their presence, they do not really understand who he is or what he is about. They misunderstand his words and do not see the real significance of his deeds, such as his feeding of the multitudes. Worse is to come of course. They not only misunderstand Jesus, but they will eventually abandon him. Mark, the evangelist, gives quite a negative portrayal of the disciples in his gospel. Yet, these are the very disciples that Jesus keeps faith with. Mark's gospel ends with the words of the young man from the tomb, "Go, tell his disciples and Peter that Jesus is going ahead of you to Galilee, there you will see him, just as he told you." After their failure, Jesus met with his disciples again in Galilee to renew their call. The gospel of Mark proclaims that Jesus is faithful to us, even when we are less that faithful to him. He goes ahead of us into all the places we journey to and find ourselves in. He is always there, ahead of us, calling us to begin again after we have failed. St Paul puts this very simply, "if we are faithless, he remains faithful."

Wednesday of Week 6

1st Reading: Genesis 8:6-13, 20-22

The Lord promises never again to destroy the earth

At the end of forty days Noah opened the window of the ark that he had made and sent out the raven; and it went to and fro until the waters were dried up from the earth. Then he sent out the dove from him, to see if the waters had subsided from the face of the ground; but the dove found no place to set its foot, and it returned to him to the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth. So he put out his hand and took it and brought it into the ark with him. He waited another seven days, and again he sent out the dove from the ark; and the dove came back to him in the evening, and there in its beak was a freshly plucked olive leaf; so Noah knew that the waters had subsided from the earth. Then he waited another seven days, and sent out the dove; and it did not return to him any more.

In the six hundred first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from the earth; and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and saw that the face of the ground was drying. Then Noah built an altar to the Lord, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird, and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And when the Lord smelled the pleasing odour, the Lord said in his heart, "I will never again curse the ground because of humankind, for the inclination of the human heart is evil from youth; nor will I ever again destroy every living creature as I have done. As long as the earth endures, seedtime and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day and night, shall not cease."

Responsorial: Psalm 115:12-15, 18-19

R./: To you, Lord, I will offer a sacrifice of praise

How can I repay the Lord
 for his goodness to me?
The cup of salvation I will raise;
 I will call on the Lord's name. (R./)

My vows to the Lord I will fulfil
 before all his people.
 O precious in the eyes of the Lord
 is the death of his faithful. (R./)

My vows to the Lord I will fulfil
 before all his people,
 in the courts of the house of the Lord,
 in your midst, O Jerusalem. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:22-26

Jesus cures the blind man with spittle and the touch of his hands

They came to Bethsaida. Some people brought a blind man to him and begged him to touch him. He took the blind man by the hand and led him out of the village; and when he had put saliva on his eyes and laid his hands on him, he asked him, "Can you see anything?" And the man looked up and said, "I can see people, but they look like trees, walking." Then Jesus laid his hands on his eyes again; and he looked intently and his sight was restored, and he saw everything clearly. Then he sent him away to his home, saying, "Do not even go into the village."


Maturing step by step

The gospel suggests the long, gradual process by which we come to the light of truth and the persistence to follow the way of truth. Genesis points out dramatically that the period of the flood must run its full course and that the earth's return to normal existence cannot be rushed. The miracle story is told only by Mark; it was not repeated nor even adapted by Matthew and Luke, even though these evangelists relied heavily on Mark. This is also the only miracle which Jesus worked in stages. Jesus even uses such lowly human substance as spittle.

Jesus' willingness to live on our human level offers much to encourage us. There is a notable sense of consideration in the way he dealt with the blind man's need. He first took him by the hand and led him outside the village. Then, away from the crowd, he put spittle on his eyes and touching the closed eyelids with his fingers, Jesus bonded with the blind man. This poor man could not see the sorrow in Jesus' eyes at the sight of this disability, but could feel the clasp of his hand and touch of his fingers. Jesus is not just conforming to common ritual practices but adapting himself to the human condition of need.

The two stages of the miracle are interesting: at first, all was so vague that people looked like walking trees; then after his cure, he could see everything clearly. These too are the stages of our growth in faith. We may be grateful to Mark for preserving the memory of Jesus' respect for the stages of our life and its growth to sanctity. The steps to sanctity follow the path of human existence, only we cannot walk the path alone but must be like Jesus who took the blind man's hand and led him outside the village. We take the hand of our neighbour in need, and to our surprise the hand that we clasp is leading us to our salvation, just as the blind man led Jesus into an episode that preached redemption to us today.

Thursday of Week 6

1st Reading: Genesis 9:1-13

The rainbow, a perpetual sign of God's covenant with Noah and the human race

God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, "Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth. The fear and dread of you shall rest on every animal of the earth, and on every bird of the air, on everything that creeps on the ground, and on all the fish of the sea; into your hand they are delivered. Every moving thing that lives shall be food for you; and just as I gave you the green plants, I give you everything. Only, you shall not eat flesh with its life, that is, its blood. For your own lifeblood I will surely require a reckoning: from every animal I will require it and from human beings, each one for the blood of another, I will require a reckoning for human life. Whoever sheds the blood of a human, by a human shall that person's blood be shed; for in his own image God made humankind. And you, be fruitful and multiply, abound on the earth and multiply in it."

Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him, "As for me, I am establishing my covenant with you and your descendants after you, and with every living creature that is with you, the birds, the domestic animals, and every animal of the earth with you, as many as came out of the ark. I establish my covenant with you, that never again shall all flesh be cut off by the waters of a flood, and never again shall there be a flood to destroy the earth." God said, "This is the sign of the covenant that I make between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations: I have set my bow in the clouds, and it shall be a sign of the covenant between me and the earth."

Responsorial: Psalm 101:16-21, 29, 22-23

R./: From heaven the Lord looks down on the earth

The nations shall fear the name of the Lord
 and all the earth's kings your glory,
 when the Lord shall build up Zion again
 and appear in all his glory.
Then he will turn to the prayers of the helpless;
 he will not despise their prayers. (R./)

Let this be written for ages to come
 that a people yet unborn may praise the Lord;
 for the Lord leaned down from his sanctuary on high.
He looked down from heaven to the earth
 that he might hear the groans of the prisoners
 and free those condemned to die. (R./)

The sons of your servants shall dwell untroubled
 and their race shall endure before you,
 that the name of the Lord may be proclaimed in Zion
 and his praise in the heart of Jerusalem,
 when peoples and kingdoms are gathered together
 to pay their homage to the Lord. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:27-33

Peter confesses Jesus as the Messiah, and is reprimanded

Jesus went on with his disciples to the villages of Caesarea Philippi; and on the way he asked his disciples, "Who do people say that I am?" And they answered him, John the Baptist; and others, Elijah; and still others, one of the prophets." He asked them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered him, "You are the Messiah." And he sternly ordered them not to tell anyone about him.

Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, and be rejected by the elders, the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He said all this quite openly. And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him. But turning and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, "Get behind me, Satan. For you are setting your mind not on divine things but on human things."


All equal in God's Sight

The two great signs of the covenant between God and the entire human race are the rainbow and the cross. And just as each spans the universe, so the covenant levels all men and women to an equal status with no favouritism in God's eyes. We are invited to reflect on the glories and hopes of forming one human family and to realize the cost in sacrifice and sharing.

The rainbow and the cross both symbolize God's deep union with the human family. Each has a vertical and a horizontal span, and presumes some measure of purification, while offering a strong promise of joy and completion. The rainbow appears after the rain has cleansed the sky and is a herald of bright sunlight. In Genesis the rainbow announces the end of Noah's flood and also gives a divine promise that such a flood will never again sweep the earth. Despite its lightsome beauty, the rainbow will not let us forget the devastating force of the flood, which is now seen as a purifying thing, washing the human race clean of its wickedness.

The same applies to the cross. No one can look at a cross, no matter how ornate it may be, without remembering the excruciating death of Jesus. Yet the cross is lifted high on our churches and is worn as the sign and emblem of our victory over sin and despair, for Jesus' resurrection is the pledge of our own future life. Both cross and rainbow carry a message of universal salvation. They belong to the world and in fact come to our attention first from the secular sphere of life. The cross was the dreaded Roman form of execution; the rainbow is visible to every human eye, whatever the person's religion may be.

The cross and the rainbow are beautiful and demanding, hopeful and distressing, dark/grim and open/fragile, deeply personal and fully universal. In their light we can truly answer Jesus' question to the disciples, "Who do you say that l am?"

Questions that illuminate

Like Socrates, Jesus delighted to ask questions of the people he encountered. One of his most important questions is found in today's gospel, "Who do you say that I am?" It is a question addressed to each one of us and each of us is asked to answer that question for ourselves. But it is not a question that just asks for information, whose answer could be found in a book. It is a question that addresses our heart as well as our head. Peter's answer to Jesus' question was correct, "you are the Christ."

Peter's answer was not the whole truth about Jesus. Jesus went on to identify himself as the Christ who would also be the suffering Son of Man who would be rejected and put to death. This self-revelation of Jesus was not acceptable to Peter. He had still to learn to accept the whole truth about Jesus, to receive Jesus as he was and not as Peter wanted him to be. Peter had a long way to go before he could answer Jesus' question fully. We are all on that same journey, coming to receive Jesus as he really is and not just as we want him to be or imagine him to be.

Friday of Week 6

1st Reading: Genesis 11:1-9

When people sought independence from God, their language is scrambled

Now the whole earth had one language and the same words. And as they migrated from the east, they came upon a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves; otherwise we shall be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth."

The Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which mortals had built. And the Lord said, "Look, they are one people, and they have all one language; and this is only the beginning of what they will do; nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them. Come, let us go down, and confuse their language there, so that they will not understand one another's speech." So the Lord scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city. Therefore it was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth; and from there the Lord scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth.

Responsorial: Psalm 32:10-15

R./: Happy the people the Lord has chosen to be his own

The Lord frustrates the designs of the nations,
 he defeats the plans of the peoples.
His own designs shall stand for ever,
 the plans of his heart from age to age. (R./)

They are happy, whose God is the Lord,
 the people he has chosen as his own.
From the heavens the Lord looks forth,
 he sees all the children of men. (R./)

From the place where he dwells he gazes
 on all the dwellers on the earth,
 he who shapes the hearts of them all
 and considers all their deeds. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 8:34-9:1

Losing one's life in order to save it

Jesus called the crowd with his disciples, and said to them, "If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me. For those who want to save their life will lose it, and those who lose their life for my sake, and for the sake of the gospel, will save it. For what will it profit them to gain the whole world and forfeit their life? Indeed, what can they give in return for their life? Those who are ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."

And he said to them, "Truly I tell you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see that the kingdom of God has come with power."


Conflicting Aspirations

The tower of Babel and the hill of Calvary: two ways of approaching heaven and of being with God, one deceptively attractive but ultimately wrong, the other forbidding but in the long run good. The contrast is intriguing and enigmatic. We see human the striving to construct the tower of Babel and the reluctance to carry one's cross after Jesus. In building the tower of Babel the proud entrepreneurs destroyed peace and harmony; in the epistle of James, good works become the proof that God is present within us and these works unite us with our neighbour. The gospel contrasts two forms of activity: taking up one's cross or acting for personal aggrandizement. Again the action which threatens to destroy us is the one which adds permanence of our life; the action which seems to affirm and build us up turns on us and destroys us. "Whoever would save their life will lose it, but whoever loses their life for my sake and the gospel's will save it."

To act against our selfish inclinations and pious camouflage, to reach out spontaneously with practical help to the neighbour in need, means to take up one's cross. To stand by someone in need and disgrace is to follow the way of Jesus who befriended prostitutes and tax collectors. It means to lose one's life; and in the depth of that faith we will have a glimpse of the true "kingdom of God established in power." Where we seem to have lost everything and to have died, we become fully alive in a way that can never taste death. No one can take that vision from us, the memory of being with Jesus and reaching out, as he did, to those genuinely in need of us. What can equal life such as this, joyful like Abraham's joy in the return of Isaac, with dignity restored, like Rahab the harlot in saving the lives of the messengers.

Going against the grain

Being true to the teaching of Christ, to the values that shaped his life, will often mean having to go against the grain, renouncing ourselves so as to put the Lord 1st in our lives. To others, and sometimes even to ourselves, this will seem like a loss. In our efforts to stay faithful to the Lord's path, we will often have to say "no" to what many are saying "yes" to. Following in the Lord's way is not easy; it often means taking the way of the cross. Being a follower of Jesus can be very demanding, especially in today's culture. But he promises that those who lose their lives for his sake and for the sake of the gospel will save their lives, will be more alive. What seems like a loss at the time will ultimately be a gain. Jesus recognizes the temptation to be ashamed of him and of his words, the temptation to keep our faith in him under cover so as to go with the flow. However, if we are prepared to live our faith publicly even when pressured to do otherwise, then we will come to experience that fullness of life that the Lord desires for all of us.

Saturday of Week 6

1st Reading: Hebrews 11:1-7

By faith we understand that the world is ruled by God's will

Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen. Indeed, by faith our ancestors received approval. By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was made from things that are not visible.

By faith Abel offered to God a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain's. Through this he received approval as righteous, God himself giving approval to his gifts; he died, but through his faith he still speaks. By faith Enoch was taken so that he did not experience death; and "he was not found, because God had taken him." For it was attested before he was taken away that "he had pleased God." And without faith it is impossible to please God, for whoever would approach him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him. By faith Noah, warned by God about events as yet unseen, respected the warning and built an ark to save his household; by this he condemned the world and became an eir to the righteousness that is in accordance with faith.

Responsorial: Psalm 144:2-5, 10-11

R./: I will praise your name for ever, Lord

I will bless you day after day
 and praise your name for ever.
The Lord is great, highly to be praised,
 his greatness cannot be measured. (R./)

Age to age shall proclaim your works,
 shall declare your mighty deeds, s
 hall speak of your splendour and glory,
 tell the tale of your wonderful works. (R./)

All your creatures shall thank you, O Lord,
 and your friends shall repeat their blessing.
They shall speak of the glory of your reign
 and declare your might, O God. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 9:2-13

Jesus' transfiguration, between his fore-runners, Moses and Elijah

Jesus took with him Peter and James and John, and led them up a high mountain apart, by themselves. And he was transfigured before them, and his clothes became dazzling white, such as no one on earth could bleach them. And there appeared to them Elijah with Moses, who were talking with Jesus. Then Peter said to Jesus, "Rabbi, it is good for us to be here; let us make three dwellings, one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah." He did not know what to say, for they were terrified. Then a cloud overshadowed them, and from the cloud there came a voice, "This is my Son, the Beloved; listen to him." Suddenly when they looked around, they saw no one with them any more, but only Jesus.

As they were coming down the mountain, he ordered them to tell no one about what they had seen, until after the Son of Man had risen from the dead. So they kept the matter to themselves, questioning what this rising from the dead could mean. Then they asked him, "Why do the scribes say that Elijah must come first?" He said to them, "Elijah is indeed coming first to restore all things. How then is it written about the Son of Man, that he is to go through many sufferings and be treated with contempt? But I tell you that Elijah has come, and they did to him whatever they pleased, as it is written about him."


Faith and Visions

The need for faith is not removed even by the experience of visions. The experience of Jesus' transfiguration led to further questions for the disciples, Peter, James and John, who were with Jesus on the mountain, who now perceived a new dimension present in their daily life. Visions do not stop the clock but are a momentary insight that will tend to leave us more restless and unsettled than before.

The transfiguration of Jesus, like his baptism and prayer in Gethsemane, enables us to see for a moment the intimate personal relation between Jesus and the Heavenly Father. We see also his close contact with us in an earthly life ending in death, and the overlapping of future glory with present difficulties in one profound life-force. It shows how close Jesus is to God the Father, but likewise the fearful sense of impending doom is accented. Coming down from the mountain Jesus speaks of his death, and in Luke's account he discusses with Elijah and Moses his "exodus" or passing from this world to the next (Luke 9:31).

Jesus felt the profound mystery of God the Father's presence within the path of his human life on its various stages towards his inevitable death. Death will be the supreme moment of God's intense, intimate presence with us as it was with Jesus. Only after we have traveled that passage from life through death into eternal life, only after the child of earth has risen from the dead, can we really tell what we have seen in the course of our life, just as the fleeting vision of Jesus' transformation on the mountain transformed his disciples' understanding of him.

Hebrews summarizes what we have seen in Genesis but also warns that what we thought we understood is only half of the truth. For this author, "faith is confident assurance concerning what we hope for, and conviction about things we do not see." When we think we see and understand, we should be filled with new questions. The wonder of God is so great that we may be certain that it is far beyond what we understand.

Moments of spiritual exaltation

There are moments when we can feel wonderfully happy, happier than we could ever have imagined, when, like Peter on the mount of transfiguration, we feel exalted in spirit and are inclined to say, "it is good for us to be here." But sometimes too, we sense an unease, a restlessness, a kind of emptiness that is never fully filled. That is because we are made for something which this world cannot fully give us. Saint Augustine said our hearts are restless until they rest in God. That is why there is so much truth in Philip's prayer to Jesus, "Lord, let us see the Father and then we shall be satisfied." We cannot but be struck by Jesus' response to Philip, "to have seen me is to have seen the Father." Jesus is saying that to see him with the eyes of faith, to enter into communion with him, is to see the Father. Already here and now in this earthly life, we can begin to experience that for which we ultimately long in and through our relationship with Jesus.

Readings for the 7th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach/Ecclesiasticus 1:1-10

All wisdom comes from God and returns to him

All wisdom is from the Lord, and with him it remains forever. The sand of the sea, the drops of rain, and the days of eternity, who can count them? The height of heaven, the breadth of the earth, the abyss, and wisdom, who can search them out?

Wisdom was created before all other things, and prudent understanding from eternity. The root of wisdom, to whom has it been revealed? Her subtleties, who knows them? There is but one who is wise, greatly to be feared, seated upon his throne, the Lord.

It is he who created her; he saw her and took her measure; he poured her out upon all his works, upon all the living according to his gift; he lavished her upon those who love him.

Responsorial: Psalm 92:1-2, 5

R./: The Lord is king; he is robed in majesty

The Lord is king, with majesty enrobed;
 the Lord has robed himself with might,
 he has girded himself with power. (R./)

The world you made firm, not to be moved;
 your throne has stood firm from of old.
From all eternity, O Lord, you are. (R./)

Truly your decrees are to be trusted.
Holiness is fitting to your house, O Lord,
 until the end of time. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 9:14-29

The mute spirit which convulses the boy is driven out by Jesus' prayer

When they came to the disciples, they saw a great crowd around them, and some scribes arguing with them. When the whole crowd saw him, they were immediately overcome with awe, and they ran forward to greet him. He asked them, "What are you arguing about with them?" Someone from the crowd answered him, "Teacher, I brought you my son; he has a spirit that makes him unable to speak; and whenever it seizes him, it dashes him down; and he foams and grinds his teeth and becomes rigid; and I asked your disciples to cast it out, but they could not do so." He answered them, "You faithless generation, how much longer must I be among you? How much longer must I put up with you? Bring him to me." And they brought the boy to him. When the spirit saw him, immediately it convulsed the boy, and he fell on the ground and rolled about, foaming at the mouth. Jesus asked the father, "How long has this been happening to him?" And he said, "From childhood. It has often cast him into the fire and into the water, to destroy him; butif you are able to do anything, have pity on us and help us." Jesus said to him, "If you are able., All things can be done for the one who believes." Immediately the father of the child cried out, "I believe; help my unbelief." When Jesus saw that a crowd came running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, saying to it, "You spirit that keeps this boy from speaking and hearing, I command you, come out of him, and never enter him again." After crying out and convulsing him terribly, it came out, and the boy was like a corpse, so that most of them said, "He is dead." But Jesus took him by the hand and lifted him up, and he was able to stand. When he had entered the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why could we not cast it out?" He said to them, "This kind can come out only through prayer."


The power of prayer

Three great and related moments in Mark's gospel, Jesus' baptism, transfiguration and prayer in the garden, are each followed by struggle: Jesus' baptism by the Lord's wrestling with Satan in the desert (Mark 1:12-13); the transfiguration by the disciples' futile wrestling to drive out a demon from the mute boy; the prayer in the garden where Jesus struggles with the will of the heavenly Father amidst "sorrow to the point of death" (Mark 14:34). Even though Mark is not characterized like Luke as a gospel of prayer, nonetheless each of these episodes is surrounded or at least concluded by prayer: Jesus spends the forty days in the desert in prayerful seclusion (1:13), caught between heaven and earth, between overwhelming goodness and demonic evil, in the grip of deep contemplative prayer. Today's episode of the boy under demonic possession ends with the statement, "This can be driven out only by prayer." In the garden Jesus admonishes his disciples, "Be on guard and pray that you may not be put to the test" 14:38).

Regarding the spirit in which to pray, we can learn from the reading from Sirach. In the last chapter of book, we learn that this elderly gentleman conducted a "house of instruction", in Hebrew, beit midrash, for the sons of the nobility (Sir 51:23). With serenity and sureness of touch Sirach spoke about every aspect of human existence, ranging from the home into the business world, from study of the law to the entertainment of guests. Yet he always ended in a spirit of wonder, prayer and the true fear of the Lord. "Extol God with renewed strength, and do not grow weary, though you cannot reach the end... It is the Lord who has made all things, and to those who fear him he gives wisdom (Sir 44:32,35).

Sirach values the fear of the Lord as glory and splendour that warms the heart. To bring this kind of reverence into our prayer, we look to the opening poem from the Book of Sirach: God's wisdom is spread across "heaven's height and earth's breadth," so great that no one can explore them. God "has poured her forth on all his works and on every living thing. He has lavished her on his friends." This wonderful wisdom exists at the depth of our being and is also with God where it remains forever.

When we review our own prayer, we might cry out with the father of the mute and epileptic boy, "I do believe. Help my lack of trust." The biblical appreciation of prayer may seem far beyond us. In fact, it is and we remember again Sirach's healthy advice, "weary not, though you cannot reach the end." What we strive to reach, we already possess at the depths of ourselves. Through Jesus we discover who we are, provided we persevere long in prayer and provided we balance our prayer with true and healthy fear, with humility and good sense.

Prayer can channel God's power

The disciples were trying to heal a seriously disturbed boy; and whereas they failed, Jesus succeeded. In response to their question as to why they could not heal the boy, he answered that "This is the kind that can only be driven out by prayer." The implication is that the disciples were trying to heal this boy with their own power, but it was only God's power that could heal him. If they were to be channels of God's power they needed to pray more. They needed to be in deeper communion with God if God was to work through them in a life-giving way.

In his reply to their question, Jesus points to the power of prayer and the need for prayer if certain kinds of difficulties are to be resolved. Some situations in life are so much bigger than us, that it is only prayer that will get us through them. Perhaps we know that from experience. When we are really up against it, we can discover that it is prayer that keeps us going, when all else fails. It is the Lord who keeps us going, and our connection with him through prayer, when every other resource appears inadequate.

Tuesday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach 2:1-11

Those who hope in the Lord are not forsaken

My child, when you come to serve the Lord, prepare yourself for testing.
Set your heart right and be steadfast, and do not be impetuous in time of calamity.
 Cling to him and do not depart, so that your last days may be prosperous.
 Accept whatever befalls you, and in times of humiliation be patient.
For gold is tested in the fire, and those found acceptable, in the furnace of humiliation.
Trust in him, and he will help you; make your ways straight, and hope in him.
You who fear the Lord, wait for his mercy; do not stray, or else you may fall.
You who fear the Lord, trust in him, and your reward will not be lost.
You who fear the Lord, hope for good things, for lasting joy and mercy.
 Consider the generations of old and see: has anyone trusted in the Lord and been disappointed?
 Or has anyone persevered in the fear of the Lord and been forsaken?
 Or has anyone called upon him and been neglected?
For the Lord is compassionate and merciful; he forgives sins and saves in time of distress.

Responsorial: Psalm 36:3-4, 18-19, 27-28, 39-40

R./: Commit your life to the Lord, and he will help you

If you trust in the Lord and do good,
 then you will live in the land and be secure.
 If you find your delight in the Lord,
 he will grant your heart's desire. (R./)

He protects the lives of the upright,
 their heritage will last for ever.
They shall not be put to shame in evil days,
 in time of famine their food shall not fail. (R./)

Then turn away from evil and do good
 and you shall have a home for ever;
 for the Lord loves justice
 and will never forsake his friends. (R./)

The salvation of the just comes from the Lord,
 their stronghold in time of distress.
The Lord helps them and delivers them and saves them:
 for their refuge is in him. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 9:30-37

Whoever welcomes a child for Jesus' sake welcomes Jesus himself

They went on from there and passed through Galilee. He did not want anyone to know it; for he was teaching his disciples, saying to them, "The Son of Man is to be betrayed into human hands, and they will kill him, and three days after being killed, he will rise again." But they did not understand what he was saying and were afraid to ask him.

Then they came to Capernaum; and when he was in the house he asked them, "What were you arguing about on the way?" But they were silent, for on the way they had argued with one another who was the greatest. He sat down, called the twelve, and said to them, "Whoever wants to be first must be last of all and servant of all." Then he took a little child and put it among them; and taking it in his arms, he said to them, "Whoever welcomes one such child in my name welcomes me, and whoever welcomes me welcomes not me but the one who sent me."


Children's rights

The call to welcome Jesus as one would welcome a child rounds off today's gospel. We can find him among the servants and the apparently least important people. Just as children easily find other children and quickly begin enjoy themselves at play, so we ought to gravitate towards the servants and the least. Childhood in this sense is not a matter of age only. A person who is lonely may be someone who also treasures beautiful memories and buried hopes, genuine possibilities, waiting for the healing touch of kindness. To welcome Jesus as a child is to open one's arms to the infinite possibilities that lie before us in life.

Sirach proposes that we reflect on our ancestors, and the success of their godly lives: "Study the generations long past and understand; has anyone hoped in the Lord and been disappointed?" This Lord, we are told, is "compassionate and merciful... he saves in time of trouble." Sirach beautifully combines fear with confidence: "You who fear the Lord, hope for good things, for lasting joy and mercy." As we see any child, we can recall the opening words from today's Bible passage in Sirach, "prepare yourself for trials." Yet as we find again the child in each of us, we welcome Jesus. Our trials are united with his cross and resurrection, and we rebound with firm hope because after three days, he rose again.

Children's welcome

With loving care the church community prepares children for their first Communion and some years later for their Confirmation. In these sacraments we welcome them into the church, receiving them into the family of believers. That welcoming children has great value is clear from today's gospel. There Jesus identifies himself very closely with children. He goes so far as to say that "anyone who welcomes one of these little children in my name, welcomes me, and anyone who welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me." By welcoming children we encounter Jesus and his Father.

Elsewhere Jesus identifies himself with the most vulnerable , the sick, the hungry, the thirsty, the naked, the stranger, the imprisoned. Children, by definition, are among the most vulnerable. They are dependant on others for life in all its dimensions. The gospel reading suggests that ministry to children and to young people, whatever form it takes, is a sacred ministry; it is indeed holy ground.

Wednesday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach 4:11-19

Seeking wisdom brings happiness and reveals life's deepest secrets

Wisdom teaches her children
 and gives help to those who seek her.
Whoever loves her loves life,
 and those who seek her from early morning are filled with joy.
Whoever holds her fast inherits glory,
 and the Lord blesses the place she enters.
Those who serve her minister to the Holy One;
 the Lord loves those who love her.
Those who obey her will judge the nations,
and all who listen to her will live secure.
 If they remain faithful, they will inherit her;
 their descendants will also obtain her.

For at first she will walk with them on tortuous paths; she will bring fear and dread upon them, and will torment them by her discipline until she trusts them, and she will test them with her ordinances. Then she will come straight back to them again and gladden them, and will reveal her secrets to them. If they go astray she will forsake them, and hand them over to their ruin.

Responsorial: Psalm 118:165, 168, 171-2, 174-5

R./: O Lord, great peace have they who love your law

The lovers of your law have great peace;
 they never stumble. I obey your precepts and your will;
 all that I do is before you. (R./)

Let my lips proclaim your praise
 because you teach me your statutes.
Let my tongue sing your promise
 for your commands are just. (R./)

Give life to my soul that I may praise you.
Let your decrees give me help.
 Lord, I long for your saving help
 and your law is my delight. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 9:38-40

Jesus corrects the apostles for blocking outsiders from acting in his name

John said to Jesus, "Teacher, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we tried to stop him, because he was not following us." But Jesus said, "Do not stop him; for no one who does a deed of power in my name will be able soon afterward to speak evil of me. Whoever is not against us is for us.


Wisdom and moderation

While Sirach, the wise old head of a Jerusalem school of practical philosophy, tends towards caution and prudence, the gospel message for today reaches outward almost with abandon, "Anyone who is not against us is with us."

It is generally agreed that wisdom is a quality that is dearly won, and whose acquisition depends on often painful experience, making it seem distant and difficult to master. Sirach recognizes this with poetic flair: "Wisdom walks with us at first as a stranger, and she puts us to the test; Fear and dread she brings on us and tries us with her discipline; With her precepts she puts us to the proof, until our heart is fully with her." He knows that wisdom is not a neat set of ideas and a dictionary of facts; rather it blends and integrates ideas with practice, and enables us to live with and respond to one another as persons. We are not automatons, pushed around by laws; instead, we interact with patience and forebearance, with interest and enthusiasm, with responsibility and self-control. This kind of wisdom has to be grown into, slowly and carefully, so that it becomes totally ourselves. Sirach puts it this way: If we trust wisdom, we will possess her; and our descendants too will inherit her.

As a man of wisdom, Jesus reprimanded his disciples for their envy and fear. Feeling threatened, or at least slighted, by some villager who went about using the name of Jesus to expel demons, they said indignantly to Jesus, "We tried to stop him, because he is not of our company." But his reply was decisive, based on his unique wisdom. He did not inquire about the doctrinal position of the other man but landed on solid, common sense ground. "No one can perform a miracle in my name and at the same time speak ill of me. Anyone who is not against us is with us." Such a response, totally free of envy and fear, totally relaxed with nothing to lose, is not easily learned, but is the fruit of wise reflection. It reflects a person at peace, and therefore strong and secure.

Wise persons are rooted in genuine values, not persons who quickly make their profit and move off somewhere else. If we walk life's path with wisdom, we become relaxed, generous and trustful, and walk along that path with Jesus.

Avoiding the "Us-and-Them" outlook

The disciples had a polarised, black and white view of people. Only those who were "one of us," as they put it, could be trusted to do the Lord's work. Jesus had a much more nuanced view of people than his disciples. He could see that even those whom he had not formally called to become one of his disciples could be doing God's life-giving work. Indeed, he makes the very generous spirited statement, "Anyone who is not against us is for us."

This is a lesson to take to heart in the times in which we live. There are a lot of people who are not explicitly for the church, in the sense of practising their faith in the way we have come to understand that, and, yet, they are not against the church either. The spirit of today's gospel is that we work to build bridges with all those who in some way share the church's mission to bring life where there is death, wholeness where there is brokenness, relief where there is suffering. We can be partners in mission with those who are "not one of us" in the strict sense. In these times we need the vision Jesus displays in today's gospel rather than that displayed by his disciples.

Thursday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach 5:1-8

Rely not on your wealth nor on your strength

Do not rely on your wealth, or say, "I have enough."
 Do not follow your inclination and strength in pursuing the desires of your heart.
 Do not say, "Who can have power over me?" for the Lord will surely punish you.
 Do not say, "I sinned, yet what has happened to me?" for the Lord is slow to anger.
 Do not be so confident of forgiveness that you add sin to sin.
 Do not say, "His mercy is great, he will forgive the multitude of my sins,"
 for both mercy and wrath are with him, and his anger will rest on sinners.
 Do not delay to turn back to the Lord, and do not postpone it from day to day;
 for suddenly the wrath of the Lord will come upon you,
 and at the time of punishment you will perish.
 Do not depend on dishonest wealth,
 for it will not benefit you on the day of calamity.

Responsorial: Psalm 1:1-4, 6

R./: Happy are they who hope in the Lord

Happy indeed is the person who follows not the counsel of the wicked;
 nor lingers in the way of sinners nor sits in the company of scorners,
 but whose delight is the law of the Lord
 and who ponders his law day and night. (R./)

He is like a tree that is planted beside the flowing waters,
 that yields its fruit in due season
 and whose leaves shall prosper. (R./)

Not so are the wicked, not so.
For they like winnowed chaff
 shall be driven away by the wind.
For the Lord guards the way of the just
 but the way of the wicked leads to doom. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 9:41-50

A drink of water given to a follower of Christ will be rewarded

For truly I tell you, whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you bear the name of Christ will by no means lose the reward.

"If any of you put a stumbling block before one of these little ones who believe in me, it would be better for you if a great millstone were hung around your neck and you were thrown into the sea. If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life maimed than to have two hands and to go to hell, to the unquenchable fire. And if your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame than to have two feet and to be thrown into hell.

And if your eye causes you to stumble, tear it out; it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye than to have two eyes and to be thrown into hell, where their worm never dies, and the fire is never quenched.

"For everyone will be salted with fire. Salt is good; but if salt has lost its saltiness, how can you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another."


Primacy of the hereafter

Some lurid statements must be taken figuratively, for in no way does Jesus demand that we disfigure ourselves, or gouge out an eye. His words reflect the primacy of the eternal over the temporal, of heavenly over earthly life: "Whoever would save their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life for my sake and the gospels' will save it" (Mark 8:35). Paraphrasing, one might put it: "If we use our hands, feet, eyes and our other faculties exclusively for selfish pleasure and not for loving service, we will lose everything in the end. But if we lose ourselves for the sake of goodness and for living by the gospel we will be saved for all eternity." Life is for sharing what we possess with others and forming one body with them. In such a loving lifestyle, even small acts of helpfulness take on a very special meaning: "Anyone who gives you a drink of water because you belong to Christ will not go unrewarded."

Sirach offers consoling advice, "Rely not on your wealth or strength," since overconfidence merely adds sin to sin. At the same time, he clearly sees the possibility of personal conversion, which should not be just put off from day to day. This is very much along the lines of the urgent biblical call to make use of the grace of the present moment. "If today you have heard the voice of the Lord, harden not your heart" (Ps 95:7-8).

Stumbling blocks

We have all found ourselves stumbling from time to time, hitting the top of our shoe against a raised kerb, perhaps, and falling forward, sometimes with damaging results. In the gospel today, Jesus speaks about stumbling blocks. He is very critical of those who are a stumbling block to the faith of others, those who undermine and weaken the other people's faith. He issues a warning against leading others astray, leading them away from God. Part of our baptismal calling is to nurture the faith of one another; to do the opposite is considered by Jesus to be a very serious matter indeed. He moves on from how people can be a stumbling to others in their relationship with God to how we can be a stumbling block to ourselves.

The hand, the foot, the eye can be a stumbling block to our own relationship with the Lord. When Jesus says, "if your eye should cause you to sin, tear it out," he does not intend to be taken literally. It is simply a striking image to bring home the seriousness of what he is saying. The positive calling of the gospel is that every aspect of our embodied existence is to serve and nurture our relationship with the Lord. Our calling is to give our whole selves to the Lord and to his way, to gather up all the elements that go to make us up and point them all in the one direction, the direction of the Lord and his will for our lives. That will not happen all the time but it is worth striving for. When our whole selves point in the direction of the Lord, then one of the beatitudes will come to pass for us, "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."

Friday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach 6:5-17

Let your friends be tried and trusted.A faithful friend is a tonic

Pleasant speech multiplies friends,
 and a gracious tongue multiplies courtesies.
Let those who are friendly with you be many,
 but let your advisers be one in a thousand.

When you gain friends, gain them through testing,
 and do not trust them hastily.
For there are friends who are such when it suits them,
 but they will not stand by you in time of trouble.

And there are friends who change into enemies,
 and tell of the quarrel to your disgrace.
 And there are friends who sit at your table,
 but they will not stand by you in time of trouble.

When you are prosperous, they become your second self,
 and lord it over your servants;
 but if you are brought low, they turn against you,
 and hide themselves from you.

Keep away from your enemies,
 and be on guard with your friends.

Faithful friends are a sturdy shelter:
 whoever finds one has found a treasure.
Faithful friends are beyond price;
 no amount can balance their worth.

Faithful friends are life-saving medicine;
 and those who fear the Lord will find them.
Those who fear the Lord direct their friendship aright,
 for as they are, so are their neighbours also.

Responsorial: Psalm 118:12, 16, 18, 27, 34-35

R./: Guide me, Lord, in the way of your commands

Blessed are you, O Lord;
 teach me your statutes.
 I take delight in your statutes;
 I will not forget your word. (R./)

Open my eyes that I may consider
 the wonders of your law.
 Make me grasp the way of your precepts
 and I will muse on your wonders. (R./)

Train me to observe your law,
 to keep it with my heart.
Guide me in the path of your commands
 for there is my delight. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:1-12

Jesus' condemnation of divorce and remarriage

Jesus left that place and went to the region of Judea and beyond the Jordan. And crowds again gathered around him; and, as was his custom, he again taught them.

Some Pharisees came, and to test him they asked, "Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife?" He answered them, "What did Moses command you?" They said, "Moses allowed a man to write a certificate of dismissal and to divorce her." But Jesus said to them, "Because of your hardness of heart he wrote this commandment for you. But from the beginning of creation, 'God made them male and female.' 'For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.' So they are no longer two, but one flesh. Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate."

Then in the house the disciples asked him again about this matter. He said to them, "Whoever divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery against her; and if she divorces her husband and marries another, she commits adultery."


Marriage and Friendship

Though we be friendly with many, only one in a thousand should be our close confidant, or our partner in life. A quality of either friendship or marriage highlighted in today's scripture is the need to persevere in it. Sirach opens his mini-essay on friendship with the advice: A kind mouth multiplies friends, and gracious lips prompt friendly greetings. We begin with a smile; our first communication, imparted intuitively, is one of interior joy and peace, showing that we are at peace with ourselves and with God. His well tested wisdom is put to the service of the students in his Jerusalem school, who "take up lodging in the house of instruction" (Sir 51:23). His guidance is both peaceful and cautious, for he counsels: "When you gain a friend, first test him, and don't be too ready to trust him." He proceeds to give the positive qualities of a true friend, who will be like "your other self; a treasure beyond price; a sturdy shelter a life-saving remedy."

The true friend, the "treasure... beyond price," may eventually become one's spouse, since the transition from friendship to marriage is part of most people's life-plan. Much can be lost by simply giving up, and betraying a love that we have pledged. In the stern language of Jesus such a break can be called by the blunt word, "adultery," and is not what God intended, when in the beginning he made them male and female. "For this reason a person shall leave father and mother and the two shall become as one... let no human agency separate what God has joined." Just as Sirach instructs us not to commit to a friendship lightly or quickly, so our Gospel for today warns us not to disrupt what God has personally blessed and united.

Friendship, the elixir of life

Sirach has some lovely things to say about friendship, "A faithful friend is the elixir of life." The author also says in that reading that those who fear the Lord will find a faithful friend. In other words, when we relate well to the Lord we will find faithful friends. When our relationship with the Lord is right it helps us to form good human relationships, marked by faithfulness and self-giving.

Jesus speaks of a special kind of friendship, the relationship between a husband and wife in marriage. His vision of marriage corresponds with the vision of friendship in the Sirach reading, two people, man and woman, faithful to each other for life to the point where they become no longer two but one. Whether married or single, we are all called to experience faithful friendships through which we come to experience the Lord's faithful love in others and in turn reveal to others that faithful love of the Lord.

Saturday of Week 7

1st Reading: Sirach 17:1-15

God made us in the divine image, and looks with favour on us

The Lord created human beings out of earth,
 and makes them return to it again.
He gave them a fixed number of days,
 but granted them authority over everything on the earth.

He endowed them with strength like his own,
 and made them in his own image.
He put the fear of them in all living beings,
 and gave them dominion over beasts and birds.

Discretion and tongue and eyes,
 ears and a mind for thinking he gave them.
He filled them with knowledge and understanding,
 and showed them good and evil.

He put the fear of him into their hearts
 to show them the majesty of his works.
 And they will praise his holy name,
 to proclaim the grandeur of his works.

He bestowed knowledge upon them,
 and allotted to them the law of life.
 and revealed to them his decrees.

Their eyes saw his glorious majesty,
 and their ears heard the glory of his voice.
He said to them, "Beware of all evil"
 and gave command to each of them concerning the neighbour.

Their ways are always known to him;
 they will not be hidden from his eyes.

Responsorial: Psalm 102:13-18

R./: The Lord's kindness is everlasting to those who fear him

As a father has compassion on his children,
 the Lord has pity on those who fear him;
 for he knows of what we are made,
 he remembers that we are dust. (R./)

As for man, his days are like grass;
 he flowers like the flower of the field.
The wind blows and he is gone
 and his place never sees him again. (R./)

But the love of the Lord is everlasting
 upon those who hold him in fear;
 his justice reaches out to children's children
 when they keep his covenant in truth. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:13-16

Jesus embraces and blesses the children who come to him

People were bringing little children to him so that he might touch them; and the disciples spoke sternly to them. But when Jesus saw this, he was indignant and said to them, "Let the little children come to me; do not stop them; for it is to such as these that the kingdom of God belongs. Truly I tell you, whoever does not receive the kingdom of God as a little child will never enter it." And he took them up in his arms, laid his hands on them, and blessed them.


Young and old in the community

The human community is viewed from several angles in today's texts. Sirach makes a grand sweeping reflection, to include all the families and communities of earth, while Mark has Jesus turn attention to the children. From Sirach we have the impression that families and communities cannot survive without close bonds of loyalty, love and obedience; James shows our need of the advice, prayers and blessing of the elders; and then Mark teaches how children model for us the correct attitude for belonging to the Kingdom of God.

It is good to begin with Sirach where the dignity of human nature and of family relationships is stated with absolute certainty, "The Lord created humankind from the earth and made us to the divine image." Even if the material substance is earthly, our shape, form and way of acting and thinking image the divine. Sirach reaches into the details of our bodily existence: He God forms the human tongues and eyes and ears and imparts to them an understanding heart.

Our tongues, eyes and ears are simply instruments by which we communicate the desires and impressions of our heart. It is in our ways of interacting with one another that the divine way of life is most perfectly manifested.

God has no material body. Therefore, our imaging the divine life must be in our actions with one another, our bonds of love and loyalty, our creativity and fruitfulness, our planting of marvellous mysteries at the heart of our actions. When God "looks with favour on our hearts," the divine image becomes apparent to others. "He shows his glorious works." Sirach sees the need of honesty and integrity; he recognizes the evil of sham and make-believe. Our "ways are ever known to him; they cannot be hidden from his eyes." Last of all, Sirach reaches outward to the world family of nations. He confesses the special choice of Israel, who is "the Lord's own portion." That unique choice is available to all men and women through faith in Jesus. Here is the most complete blessing on family and the most perfect of all divine images.

Mark's gospel today draws us to the children within the family. Here Jesus states a message inscribed deeply in the gospel and in our memory: It is to just such as these that the kingdom of God belongs.

"Do not prevent them"

The reference to people bringing children to Jesus in the gospel is reflected in the parents who have bringing children for baptism. The contrast between how the disciples, on the one hand, and Jesus, on the other, responded to the parents bringing children to Jesus is very striking. The disciples wanted to turn the parents and their children away, whereas Jesus insisted that the children come to him and that nothing be placed in the way of this.

This story suggests that we must do what we can to bring children into a relationship with Jesus. It also suggests that along with our responsibility towards children we have a lot to learn from them too. We have to learn to welcome the kingdom of God as children do. Children are very receptive to good things, to gifts, including the gift of the kingdom of God, the gift of the Lord. They are open to that gift; they are very receptive to it. We can easily loose that receptiveness, the openness to the Lord, as we grow older. As adults we have to keep on recovering it, we need to keep learning to become like children so that we can welcome the gift of the Lord as openly as they do.

Readings for the 8th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 17:24-29

Repent from sin while you are still alive. The dead cannot praise God

Turn to the Lord, plead before his face and lessen your offence.
To those who repent God permits return,
 and he encourages those who were losing hope.

Return to the Lord and leave sin behind,
 plead before his face and lessen your offence.
 Come back to the Most High and turn away from iniquity,
 and hold in abhorrence all that is foul.

Who will praise the Most High in Sheol,
 if the living do not do so by giving glory to him?
To the dead, as to those who do not exist, praise is unknown,
 only those with life and health can praise the Lord.
How great is the mercy of the Lord,
 his pardon on all those who turn towards him!

Responsorial: Psalm 31:1-2, 5-7

R./: Let the just exult and rejoice in the Lord

Happy the person whose offence is forgiven,
 whose sin is remitted.
 O happy the one to whom the Lord imputes no guilt,
 in whose spirit is no guile. (R./)

But now I have acknowledged my sins;
 my guilt I did not hide.
 I said: 'I will confess my offence to the Lord.'
 And you, Lord, have forgiven the guilt of my sin. (R./)

So let every good person pray to you
 in the time of need.
The floods of water may reach high
 but him they shall not reach. (R./)

You are my hiding place, O Lord;
 you save me from distress.
You surround me with cries of deliverance. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:17-27

Jesus invites the rich young man to give away his money and be a disciple

As he was setting out on a journey, a man ran up and knelt before him, and asked him, "Good Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?" Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good but God alone. You know the commandments: "You shall not murder; You shall not commit adultery; You shall not steal; You shall not bear false witness; You shall not defraud; Honour your father and mother.'" He said to him, "Teacher, I have kept all these since my youth." Jesus, looking at him, loved him and said, "You lack one thing; go, sell what you own, and give the money to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; then come, follow me." When he heard this, he was shocked and went away grieving, for he had many possessions.

Then Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, "How hard it will be for those who have wealth to enter the kingdom of God." And the disciples were perplexed at these words. But Jesus said to them again, "Children, how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for someone who is rich to enter the kingdom of God." They were greatly astounded and said to one another, "Then who can be saved?" Jesus looked at them and said, "For mortals it is impossible, but not for God; for God all things are possible."


Paradox: Gaining by Losing

The paradox of voluntarily losing something in order to gain something else appears both in 1 Peter and in Mark, and is a hallmark of Markan (and of Petrine) theology, for Mark was Saint Peter's disciple and helper in Rome. This principle also has a number of practical applications outside the religious sphere. The gambler knows that she or he stands to lose the wagered amount, but risks it just the same, in hope of the prize to be won, whether on the card-table, the racetrack or the stock-market. The farmer knows what must first be spent on seed, grain and fertilizer, in order to ensure a crop. And how many physicians urge their patients to lose some weight, in pursuit of a healthier lifestyle.

This imperative is echoed in today's austere message, where in a memorable image Jesus expresses the no pain, no gain philosophy. "It is easier for a camel to pass through a needle's eye than for a rich person to enter the kingdom of God." The anonymous rich young man was ready for other aspects of discipleship, perhaps: the learning, the travelling, the companionship, but not this stark call to renunciation. The riches and talents of life can block and stultify us unless they are enjoyed in accordance with God's will and in a spirit of service and of sharing with our neighbour. That other haunting statement of Jesus comes back to mind: "Whoever loses his life will save it" (Mark 8:35).

While First Peter is among the most life-affirming documents in the New Testament, it too has more than a hint of the world-renouncing principle. Peter sees the glory of the Risen Jesus transforming us from within, we who have been reborn by baptism into an imperishable inheritance. It looks as if this epistle began as a baptismal homily, possibly in Rome, when entering the outlawed early church carried with it the risk of martyrdom. This risk to one's life and freedom lends special quality to what Peter says about the life-enhancing grace of baptism. Through it we begin a new life, the glorious life of Jesus, a source of extraordinary joy and strength now, a pledge of what is "to be revealed in the last days."

An answer harder than the question

Sometimes when we ask a question, we can find it difficult to come to terms with the answer. That is the case with the rich man who ran up to Jesus in today's gospel with the question, 'What must I do to inherit eternal life?' When Jesus asked him to go beyond the Ten Commandments he had been keeping and to sell all he owned and follow Jesus along the way, he couldn't live with that answer. We are told that he walked away sad. Jesus did not ask everybody he met to sell everything and to journey with him, but he did ask this particular young man. This was this person's particular calling. Like this individual, we can find ourselves faced with a call to do something which seems beyond us. The temptation is to walk away from the challenge, even though to say 'yes' to it would be the path to a fuller life for us.

The Lord can call any one of us beyond where we are; he can call on us to grow in our relationship with him, to be more generous in our response to his presence. We may not be able to answer that call in our own strength, but we will be able to answer it with the Lord's strength. In the gospel reading, Jesus declares that 'everything is possible for God.' When Mary was called to become the mother of Jesus and she hesitated, that was the message she heard. The angel declared to her 'Nothing will be impossible with God.' It is the message we too will hear whenever we seek to answer the Lord's call to us.

Tuesday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 35:1-12

The wise person is generous to the poor and abhors extortion

The one who keeps the law makes many offerings;
 one who heeds the commandments makes an offering of well-being.
The one who returns a kindness offers choice flour,
 and one who gives alms sacrifices a thank offering.
To keep from wickedness is pleasing to the Lord,
 and to forsake unrighteousness is an atonement.

Do not appear before the Lord empty-handed,
 for all that you offer is in fulfillment of the commandment.
The offering of the righteous enriches the altar,
 and its pleasing odour rises before the Most High.
The sacrifice of the righteous is acceptable,
 and it will never be forgotten.

Be generous when you worship the Lord,
 and do not stint the first fruits of your hands.
With every gift show a cheerful face,
 and dedicate your tithe with gladness.
Give to the Most High as he has given to you,
 and as generously as you can afford.

Responsorial: Psalm 49:5-8, 14, 23

R./: To the upright I will show the saving power of God

Summon before me my people
 who made covenant with me by sacrifice.
The heavens proclaim his justice,
 for he, God, is the judge. (R./)

'Listen, my people, I will speak;
 Israel, I will testify against you, for I am God your God.
 I find no fault with your sacrifices,
 your offerings are always before me. (R./)

'Pay your sacrifice of thanksgiving to God
 and render him your votive offerings.
 A sacrifice of thanksgiving honours me
 and I will show God's salvation to the upright.' (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:28-31

Repaid a hundred times over for anything we have given up for Jesus' sake

Peter began to say to him, "Look, we have left everything and followed you." Jesus said, "Truly I tell you, there is no one who has left house or brothers or sisters or mother or father or children or fields, for my sake and for the sake of the good news, who will not receive a hundredfold now in this age, houses, brothers and sisters, mothers and children, and fields with persecutions, and in the age to come eternal life. But many who are first will be last, and the last will be first."


Remembering the Poor

When Sirach took part in the temple liturgy, he was filled with joy. His exuberance pours out while praising "the greatest among his associates, the glory of his people,… Simon the high priest" (Sir 50). What a contrast to the prophets who often excoriated the temple priesthood for their laxity and self-serving ambition. The words of Hosea capture this: "With you is my grievances, O High Priest. My people perish for want of knowledge. Since you have rejected knowledge, I will reject you as my priest… They feed on the sin of my people, and are greedy for their guilt (Hos 4:4-8).

The prophets called out passionately for social justice and kindness towards the poor. Micah has given this cause its most pity expression: "You have been told what is good, and what the Lord requires of you: Only to do the right and to love goodness, and to walk humbly with your God" (Mic 6:8). Isaiah reduced the entire law to hearing the orphan's plea and defending the widow (Isa 1:16). Orphans and widows were the accepted symbols of defenseless people. In a less fiery mode Sirach expresses the same concern for the poor, stating that works of charity are equivalent to offerings of fine flour on the altar. For him also, to refrain from evil and to avoid injustice is the best kind of sacrifice. God cannot tolerate injustice for long.

When Jesus appeared, he identified with the poor, gravitated towards them and spoke up in their defense. The village of Bethany was prominent because this city marked the spot where lepers came closest to Jerusalem, to overlook the holy city from the Mount of Olives. To reach out and touch the leper in one sense it renders us unclean, not fit to share in temple ritual. Yet in another way it renders us holy with the Jesus who befriended lepers and declared that "The last shall be first."

Sirach bids us never forget the poor, even in the midst of elegant ritual with its pomp and circumstance. If we will not listen to the gentle voice of this wise teacher, the prophets will fling their threats at our conscience. At moments of prayer, when we are closest to God, we must not forget the poor, for all of us in our deepest need, turn out to be God's poor ones.

What's to become of us?

Today's gospel begins with a question from Peter, "What about us? We have left everything and followed you." He and the rest of the twelve had given up a great deal to become followers of Jesus. They may have wondered if it was really worth it all. We too have responded to the Lord's call, maybe not in the same very radical way that those first disciples had answered his call, leaving their livelihood and family for a very uncertain future. Perhaps on our off-days we might be tempted to ask like Peter; "Is it worth the effort, this following of Jesus, this struggle to live by the values of the gospel day in and day out." The answer of Jesus to Peter and to us all is that, "yes, it is worth the effort." Jesus promises us in that gospel reading that when we respond to his call, when we give of ourselves for his sake, we will receive far more than we will give. In particular, he says that we will gain a new experience of family, far beyond the confines of our blood family, the family of believers. We will find ourselves co-travellers with others who are trying to take the same path as ourselves; we will experience the richness of the church, the community of the Lord's followers. That community embraces not only those of us still on our pilgrim way, but all who have passed beyond this life, including the saints, that "great cloud of witnesses."

Wednesday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 36:1, 4-5, 10-17

Faithful to His promises, God will reveal his salvation to the ends of the earth

The nations have acknowledged that there is no God but you.
Have mercy on us, Master, Lord of all, and look on us,
 cast the fear of yourself over every nation.
Let them acknowledge you,
 just as we have acknowledged that there is no God but you, Lord.
Send new portents, do fresh wonders,
 win glory for your hand and your right arm.

Gather together all the tribes of Jacob,
 restore them their inheritance as in the beginning.
Have mercy, Lord, on the people who have invoked your name,
 on Israel whom you have treated as a first-born.
Show compassion on your holy city,
 on Jerusalem the place of your rest.
Fill Zion with songs of your praise,
 and your sanctuary with your glory.

Bear witness to those you created in the beginning,
 and fulfil the prophesies spoken in your name.
Give those who wait for you their reward,
 and let your prophets be proved worthy of belief.
Grant, Lord, the prayer of your servants,
 according to Aaron's blessing on your people,
 so that all the earth's inhabitants may acknowledge
 that you are the Lord, the everlasting God.

Responsorial: Psalm 78:8-9, 11, 13

R./: Show us, O Lord, the light of your kindness

Do not hold the guilt of our fathers against us.
Let your compassion hasten to meet us
 for we are in the depths of distress. (R./)

O God our saviour, come to our help,
 come for the sake of the glory of your name.
 O Lord our God, forgive us our sins;
 rescue us for the sake of your name. (R./)

Let the groans of the prisoners come before you;
 let your strong arm reprieve those condemned to die.
But we, your people, the flock of your pasture,
 will give you thanks for ever and ever.
We will tell your praise from age to age. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:32-45

There will be no rank or titles in God's kingdom

They were on the road, going up to Jerusalem, and Jesus was walking ahead of them; they were amazed, and those who followed were afraid. He took the twelve aside again and began to tell them what was to happen to him, saying, "See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be handed over to the chief priests and the scribes, and they will condemn him to death; then they will hand him over to the Gentiles; they will mock him, and spit upon him, and flog him, and kill him; and after three days he will rise again." ServiceJames and John, the sons of Zebedee, came forward to him and said to him, "Teacher, we want you to do for us whatever we ask of you." And he said to them, "What is it you want me to do for you?" And they said to him, "Grant us to sit, one at your right hand and one at your left, in your glory." But Jesus said to them, "You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?" They replied, "We are able. Then Jesus said to them, "The cup that I drink you will drink; and with the baptism with which I am baptized, you will be baptized; but to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared."

When the ten heard this, they began to be angry with James and John. So Jesus called them and said to them, "You know that among the Gentiles those whom they recognize as their rulers lord it over them, and their great ones are tyrants over them. But it is not so among you; but whoever wishes to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wishes to be first among you must be slave of all. For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many."


Respecting the dignity of others

Sirach insists on the respect we must show towards the gifts of others. Absorbed in what God can do for his chosen people, he prays that foreign nations too will fear God. He lived and conducted his school in Jerusalem during a time of peace, just before the great troubles that pulse through Daniel and the books of Maccabees burst upon Israel. Yet not content with the serenity of peaceful times, he begs God not to let his people be dulled into complacency and compromise. Unlike other sapiential writers (like Proverbs, Job and Ecclesiastes) Sirach delights in the temple liturgy. He shows respect for the talents and gifts of others and encourages them.

The gospel describes the disciples dismay, on the road to Jerusalem, as they hear Jesus speak about his coming Passion. He foretells that "the Son of Man will be handed over; and they will mock him and spit at him, flog him, and finally kill him. But three days later he will rise." God's promises are so amazing that before the event there is no way of understanding them. Even though Jesus' enemies will do away with him, God will turn their political contriving into a loving sacrifice, leading to an outpouring of life. "This is my body to be given for you… my blood which will be shed for you."

In contrast with this exalted theology of hope and life, of self-giving martyrdom and total love for others, the ambition of Zebedee's sons, James and John, seems petty and even detestable. How can they jostle for privileged places in the kingdom, seeking to outrank the other disciples, when Jesus has announced the giving of his life for everyone? Jesus' answer was very simple, "Whoever aspires to greatness must serve the rest." This is the mind of Jesus, the mind that must also be in us (Phil 2:5).

On different wavelengths

There are several clashes between Jesus and his disciples in Mark's gospel, as they make their way to Jerusalem, where Jesus will be crucified. They are clearly on different wavelengths, which finds expression in the very different questions they ask of each other. James and John ask Jesus for glory, honour, status. What he asks of them focuses on the experience of rejection and suffering that he himself must face, "Can you drink the cup that I must drink, or be baptized with the baptism with which I must be baptized?" He was referring to the cup of suffering and the baptism of fire. The question of James and John showed their interest in self-promotion. The question of Jesus showed his interest in self-giving. At the heart of being his disciple is self-giving love, becoming the servant of others, and this will often mean taking the way of the cross, as Jesus knew from his own experience. James and John, and all of us, are being called to follow the one who did not come to be served but to serve, whose purpose in life was not to promote himself but to empty himself for others. It is only in following this way that we will receive that share in Jesus' glory that was the focus of James and John's request.

Thursday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 42:15-25

God fills the universe with an infinite variety of life, strange and marvellous

In his majesty he gives the clouds their strength,
 and the hailstones are broken in pieces.
The voice of his thunder rebukes the earth;
 when he appears, the mountains shake.

At his will the south wind blows;
 so do the storm from the north and the whirlwind.
He scatters the snow like birds flying down,
 and its descent is like locusts alighting.
The eye is dazzled by the beauty of its whiteness,
 and the mind is amazed as it falls.

He pours frost over the earth like salt,
 and icicles form like pointed thorns.
The cold north wind blows,
 and ice freezes on the water;
 it settles on every pool of water,
 and the water puts it on like a breastplate.
He consumes the mountains and burns up the desert,
 and withers the tender grass like fire.

A mist quickly heals all things;
 the falling dew gives refreshment from the heat.
By his plan he stilled the deep
 and planted islands in it.
Those who sail the sea tell of its dangers,
 and we marvel at what we hear.
 In it are strange and marvelous creatures,
 all kinds of living things, and huge sea-monsters.

Responsorial: Psalm 32:2-9

R./: By the word of the Lord the heavens were made

Give thanks to the Lord upon the harp,
 with a ten-stringed lute sing him songs.
 O sing him a song that is new,
 play loudly, with all your skill. (R./)

For the word of the Lord is faithful
 and all his works to be trusted.
The Lord loves justice and right
 and fills the earth with his love. (R./)

By his word the heavens were made,
 by the breath of his mouth all the stars.
He collects the waves of the ocean;
 he stores up the depths of the sea. (R./)

Let all the earth fear the Lord,
 all who live in the world revere him.
He spoke; and it came to be.
He commanded; it sprang into being. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 10:46-52

Jesus heals Bartimaeus of blindness because of his faith

They came to Jericho. As he and his disciples and a large crowd were leaving Jericho, Bartimaeus son of Timaeus, a blind beggar, was sitting by the roadside. When he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to shout out and say, "Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me." Many sternly ordered him to be quiet, but he cried out even more loudly, "Son of David, have mercy on me." Jesus stood still and said, "Call him here." And they called the blind man, saying to him, "Take heart; get up, he is calling you." So throwing off his cloak, he sprang up and came to Jesus. Then Jesus said to him, "What do you want me to do for you?" The blind man said to him, "My teacher, let me see again." Jesus said to him, "Go; your faith has made you well." Immediately he regained his sight and followed him on the way.


Reborn in spirit

Sirach moves from outward things to inner mysteries, from the beauty of nature to the depths of the human heart where emotions vibrate and reasons may clash. "God plumbs the depths and penetrates the heart, and understands their inmost being. How beautiful are all his works… to meet each need, each creature is preserved." Following Sirach's advice, our life of faith too should follow the quick spontaneity of the child that reaches towards its mother's breast for "the pure milk of the spirit."

Blind but vigorous

A lovely stained-glass window in a nearby church depicts today's scene, the healing of the man born blind.. At the bottom of the picture is written the exchange between Jesus and the man, "What do you want me to do for you?," "Lord, let me see again." Apparently this man almost did not get close enough to Jesus to really talk with him. When he first cried out, from his place by the roadside, "Son of David, Jesus, have pity on me," some friends of Jesus scolded the man and told him to keep quiet.

Jesus was critical of those who prevented others from coming to believe in him. He reproved his disciples for preventing children being brought for his blessing. He ignored those who tried to prevent blind Bartimaeus from making contact with him. Rather than shutting doors in people's faces, Jesus wants his followers to open up the kingdom of heaven to others. We are to lead each other to the Lord, reveal the Lord to each other, and, in so doing, to support one another on our journey towards God. We can only admire the efforts made by pope Francis in this direction.

Jesus stopped his walk and told those who were insisting that the man keep quiet that, instead, they call him to come over. These well-meaning followers of Jesus were preventing this man from relating to Jesus, much to Jesus' annoyance. Our calling is to do the very opposite; it is to help each other meet the Lord, to bring each other to the Lord in some way, to support one another in our efforts to follow the Lord along the road.

Friday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 44:1, 9-13

Remembering our ancestors with respect

Let us now sing the praises of famous men,
 our ancestors in their generations.
 But of others there is no memory;
 they have perished as though they had never existed;
 they have become as though they had never been born,
 they and their children after them.
But these also were godly men,
 whose righteous deeds have not been forgotten;
 their wealth will remain with their descendants,
 and their inheritance with their children's children.
Their descendants stand by the covenants;
 their children also, for their sake.
Their offspring will continue forever,
 and their glory will never be blotted out.

Responsorial: Psalm 149:1-6, 9

R./: The Lord takes delight in his people

Sing a new song to the Lord,
 his praise in the assembly of the faithful.
Let Israel rejoice in its Maker,
 let Zion's sons exult in their king. (R./)

Let them praise his name with dancing
 and make music with timbrel and harp.
For the Lord takes delight in his people.
He crowns the poor with salvation. (R./)

Let the faithful rejoice in their glory,
 shout for joy and take their rest.
Let the praise of God be on their lips; (R./)

Gospel: Mark 11:11-26

The barren fig-tree withers away

Then he entered Jerusalem and went into the temple; and when he had looked around at everything, as it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the twelve.

On the following day, when they came from Bethany, he was hungry. Seeing in the distance a fig tree in leaf, he went to see whether perhaps he would find anything on it. When he came to it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. He said to it, "May no one ever eat fruit from you again." And his disciples heard it.

Then they came to Jerusalem. And he entered the temple and began to drive out those who were selling and those who were buying in the temple, and he overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who sold doves; and he would not let anyone to carry anything through the temple. He was teaching and saying, "Is it not written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer or all the nations'? But you have made it a den of robbers."

And when the chief priests and the scribes heard it, they kept looking for a way to kill him; for they were afraid of him, because the whole crowd was spellbound by his teaching. And when evening came, Jesus and his disciples went out of the city.

In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered away to its roots. Then Peter remembered and said to him, "Rabbi, look. The fig tree that you cursed has withered." Jesus answered them, "Have faith in God. Truly I tell you, if you say to this mountain, 'Be taken up and thrown into the sea,' and if you do not doubt in your heart, but believe that what you say will come to pass, it will be done for you. So I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours."

"Whenever you stand praying, forgive, if you have anything against anyone; so that your Father in heaven may also forgive you your trespasses. But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive you your trespasses."


An end and a beginning

Mark's gospel sets Jesus' cleansing the temple in some association with his cursing the fig tree and its withering, since the story of the fig tree envelops the other incident, a style quite common in Mark. Jesus was doing more than cleansing the temple, for his words, drawn from the Old Testament, announce a new type of temple: "My house shall be called a house of prayer for all people."

In those days, non-Jews were forbidden under pain of death to advance beyond the outer court of the gentiles, and the Roman authorities ratified this prescription. But Jesus draws from an Old Testament passage (Isaiah, 56) from a tradition which was not dominant in the life of Israel, though the words give an understanding of God's plans for the future of his people. Clearly, he wants them to live more prayerfully and more generously towards others, and let outsiders to share in the Jewish prayerful awareness of God's presence.

A house of prayer

Mark often links two stories together that he feels have something in common. Today he links the story of Jesus in the temple with the story of Jesus and the fig tree. Jesus could not find any fruit on the fig tree, and he declared that the tree had no future. Mark is implying that when Jesus entered the temple he found that it was not bearing the fruit it was meant to bear. Instead of being a house of prayer it had become a robber's den. Like the fig tree, it too had no future.

At the end of our gospel text, Jesus again speaks about prayer. The temple will be replaced by a new house of prayer, a new praying community, the community of those who do the will of God as Jesus has revealed it, the community of Jesus' brothers and sisters, what came to be called the church. The church is to be a prayerful community. It is also to be a community that is marked by forgiveness. When Jesus speaks about prayer at the end of that gospel reading, he links it to forgiveness. 'When you stand in prayer, forgive whatever you have against anybody, so that your Father in heaven may forgive your failings too.' The readiness to forgive as we have been forgiven is one of the primary fruits that God would expect to find among this new community of prayer.

Saturday of Week 8

1st Reading: Sirach 51:12-20

In praise of Wisdom

You of Lord saved me from destruction
 and rescued me in time of trouble.
For this reason I thank you and praise you,
 and I bless the name of the Lord.

While I was still young, before I went on my travels,
 I sought wisdom openly in my prayer.
 Before the temple I asked for her,
 and I will search for her until the end.
 From the first blossom to the ripening grape
 my heart delighted in her;
 my foot walked on the straight path;
 from my youth I followed her steps.
 I inclined my ear a little and received her,
 and I found for myself much instruction.

I made progress in her;
 to him who gives wisdom I will give glory.
For I resolved to live according to wisdom,
 and I was zealous for the good,
 and I shall never be disappointed.
 My soul grappled with wisdom,
 and in my conduct I was strict;
 I spread out my hands to the heavens,
 and lamented my ignorance of her.
 I directed my soul to her,
 and in purity I found her.

Responsorial: Psalm 18:8-11

R./: The precepts of the Lord give joy to the heart

The law of the Lord is perfect,
 it revives the soul.
The rule of the Lord is to be trusted,
 it gives wisdom to the simple. (R./)

The precepts of the Lord are right,
 they gladden the heart.
The command of the Lord is clear,
 it gives light to the eyes. (R./)

The fear of the Lord is holy,
 abiding for ever.
The decrees of the Lord are truth
 and all of them just. (R./)

They are more to be desired than gold,
 than the purest of gold,
 and sweeter are they than honey,
 than honey from the comb. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 11:27-33

Jesus will explain his authority if others will state their judgment on John's ministry

Again they came to Jerusalem. As he was walking in the temple, the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders came to him and said, "By what authority are you doing these things? Who gave you this authority to do them?" Jesus said to them, "I will ask you one question; answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. Did the baptism of John come from heaven, or was it of human origin? Answer me." They argued with one another, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why then did you not believe him?' But shall we say, 'Of human origin'?", they were afraid of the crowd, for all regarded John as truly a prophet. So they answered Jesus, "We do not know." And Jesus said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things."


Willing to Grow

The writer we call Ben-Sirach is calm and confident. His fidelity over the years to the ancestral wisdom of his people has brought its own kind of peace, and a joyful feeling within his heart. In this way wisdom offers us life in its fullness. But we must be honest with ourselves and with others, and let God to set the agenda and the questions. Our God works within reality, and it requires honesty to relate to Him. Unless we recognize reality, he cannot interact with us, for dishonesty sets up a higher barrier to God's presence with us than any other sin. All can be forgiven by God's excelling mercy, but only if we honestly admit what needs to be forgiven.

Jesus makes a similar demand, when religious leaders feel that their monopoly of truth and holiness dispenses them from ordinary justice. To protect their status they are prepared to be devious. In the early church, some people felt so spiritually sanctified that they could ignore normal discipline in their lives, particularly in acts such as eating or physical expressions of love. They neglected the integral unity between body and soul, the physical and the spiritual.

Sirach writes from Old Testament times before the Holy Trinity was revealed. Yet the same approach to faith is found in both Testaments. From our Wisdom readings these past two weeks we have seen this teacher as practical and down to earth, while every so often flashes of profound mysticism shine through his lines. He says, "I will cultivate her until the end," meaning this wisdom that is God's gift. "I became preoccupied with her, never weary of extolling her." If the text asks us to meditate today on honesty before God and before our neighbour, we are not only led along the path of reality, with our feet firmly on this earth, but we are also being guided into a heavenly mystery, a mystery of transcendent wonder, kindness and eternal life. If we are honest, we pursue this journey with Jesus, who will then answer every one of our questions.

By what authority?

Today's gospel comes just after Jesus cleansed the temple, which was a very daring thing to do. There were people in charge of the temple and Jesus certainly had not been authorized by them to do what he did. The question the religious authorities responsible for the temple put to Jesus is very understandable, "What authority have you for acting like this? Who gave you this authority? This happened towards the end of Jesus' ministry. By contrast, at the start of his ministry, according to Mark, the ordinary people of Galilee were struck by the authority with which Jesus spoke and acted. Far from being disturbed by his authority, as the religious leaders were, they were greatly impressed by it. They were all amazed, Mark says, and kept asking one another, "What is this? A new teaching, with authority."

Our Lord spoke and acted with the authority of God. For those who had eyes to see and ears to hear, it was a liberating authority. We all need an authority of some sort as a reference point in life. The real issue is who or what will we take as our authority. The gospels assure is that Jesus embodies the authentic authority of God, an authority that empowers us to become fully human and fully alive

Readings for the 9th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (1:3; 2:1-8

In exile far from home, Tobit still cares for his neighbours

I, Tobit, walked in the ways of truth and righteousness all the days of my life. I performed many acts of charity for my kindred and my people who had gone with me in exile to Nineveh in the land of the Assyrians.

During the reign of Esar-haddon I returned home, and my wife Anna and my son Tobias were restored to me. At our festival of Pentecost, which is the sacred festival of weeks, a good dinner was prepared for me and I reclined to eat. When the table was set for me and an abundance of food placed before me, I said to my son Tobias, "Go, my child, and bring whatever poor person you may find of our people among the exiles in Nineveh, who is wholeheartedly mindful of God, and he shall eat together with me. I will wait for you, until you come back." So Tobias went to look for some poor person of our people. When he had returned he said, "Father." And I replied, "Here I am, my child." Then he went on to say, "Look, father, one of our own people has been murdered and thrown into the market place, and now he lies there strangled." Then I sprang up, left the dinner before even tasting it, and removed the body from the square and laid it in one of the rooms until sunset when I might bury it. When I returned, I washed mysel and ate my food in sorrow. Then I remembered the prophecy of Amos, how he said against Bethel, "Your festivals shall be turned into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation." And I wept.

When the sun had set, I went and dug a grave and buried him. And my neighbours laughed and said, "Is he still not afraid? He has already been hunted down to be put to death for doing this, and he ran away; yet here he is again burying the dead."

Responsorial: Psalm 111:1-6

R./: Happy are those who fear the Lord

Happy the man who fears the Lord,
 who takes delight in his commands.
His sons will be powerful on earth;
 the children of the upright are blessed. (R./)

Riches and wealth are in his house;
 his justice stands firm for ever.
He is a light in the darkness for the upright:
 he is generous, merciful and just. (R./)

The good man takes pity and lends,
 he conducts his affairs with honour.
The just man will never waver:
 he will be remembered for ever. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:1-12

The wicked tenants kill the vineyard-owner's son, but justice is restored

Then he began to speak to them in parables. "A man planted a vineyard, put a fence around it, dug a pit for the wine press, and built a watchtower; then he leased it to tenants and went to another country. When the season came, he sent a slave to the tenants to collect from them his share of the produce of the vineyard. But they seized him, and beat him, and sent him away empty-handed. And again he sent another slave to them; this one they beat over the head and insulted. Then he sent another, and that one they killed. And so it was with many others; some they beat, and others they killed. He had still one other, a beloved son. Finally he sent him to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.' But those tenants said to one another, 'This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.' So they seized him, killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard. What then will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the tenants and give the vineyrd to others. Have you not read this scripture: 'The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord's doing, and it is amazing in our eyes'?"

When they realized that he had told this parable against them, they wanted to arrest him, but they feared the crowd. So they left him and went away.


Surviving in a new environment

A slender thread links Tobit with the gospel parable for today: how to survive in a changed situation, when the cultural and moral markers one has relied upon seem to have diluted or disappeared. In today's gospel, brutish people grow recklessly selfish way because of God's apparent absence. In an age of shifting cultural values we need the commonsense message of the book of Tobit, which integrates religion with everyday life, and deeply-held family values are revived to provide a foothold of meaning. In the story, God responds to Tobit's sense of fidelity. This book can be read as a religious novel, whose message is clearly relevant for today. The inspired author used a lively story form, figures of speech, the setting of the Assyrian exile, lines from the prophets and from the Book of Proverbs, to make one major point: even the tragic and baffling turns of life can lead to a happy ending.

Today's gospel also wrestles with the problem of failure and the sense of loss. The vineyard owner seems to have vanished, so the tenant farmers behave recklessly, even killing the owner's son to seize control of the property. When Jesus told this parable, he surely had in mind the familiar text: "The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone." (Ps 118:22). This principle of reversal holds that God is always faithful to th ose who trust Him, and can draw new life from the worst of situations. Christians later applied this text to the spread of the faith to the gentile world after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in A.D. 66-70.

The story of Tobit, as intriguing as a short novel, invites us to admire the person who risks his own security and peace in order to give a decent burial to his murdered fellow-exile. The gospel's message too is fundamentally optimistic: out of disaster good can come. Jesus, the stone rejected by the builders, is the bedrock and keystone of our lives. If we are founded and rooted in him, God will build us a peaceful home on earth and our eternal dwelling hereafter.

Rejection and acceptance

The parable in today's gospel is about rejection. A vineyard owner sent his servants to collect his share of the fruits of the vineyard; all of them were rejected out of hand. He then sent his son who was not only rejected but brutally murdered. At the end of the story comes a complete reversal. Jesus promises that the stone rejected by the builders will become the keystone, the most important stone in a building. The is a veiled reference to what had been done to the prophets in former times and what would soon happen to Jesus himself. He would be rejected and put to death, but God would raise him uo and make him the keystone of a new spiritual building, the church.

To suffer rejection is a common enough human experience. People can feel themselves rejected by others, often by significant others, at various stages of their lives. Jesus who knew the pain of rejection identifies with us in our own moments of rejection. He also assures us that there can be life and love beyond rejection; the rejected stone can become the keystone. God can work in a life-giving way in and through all the various painful experiences that we struggle with in life. Experiences that we might judge to be completely negative can turn out to be foundational for our lives. The Lord's power often manifests itself in surprising ways in our moments of greatest weakness.

Tuesday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (2:9-14

Even though he was blind Tobit did not turn against God

That night I washed myself and went into my courtyard and slept by the wall of the courtyard; and my face was uncovered because of the heat. I did not know that there were sparrows on the wall; their fresh droppings fell into my eyes and produced white films. I went to physicians to be healed, but the more they treated me with ointments the more my vision was obscured by the white films, until I became completely blind. For four years I remained unable to see. All my kindred were sorry for me, and Ahikar took care of me for two years before he went to Elymais.

At that time, also, my wife Anna earned money at women's work. She used to send what she made to the owners and they would pay wages to her. One day, the seventh of Dystrus, when she cut off a piece she had woven and sent it to the owners, they paid her full wages and also gave her a young goat for a meal. When she returned to me, the goat began to bleat. So I called her and said, "Where did you get this goat? It is surely not stolen, is it? Return it to the owners; for we have no right to eat anything stolen." But she said to me, "It was given to me as a gift in addition to my wages." But I did not believe her, and told her to return it to the owners. I became flushed with anger against her over this. Then she replied to me, "Where are your acts of charity? Where are your righteous deeds? These things are known about you."

Responsorial: Psalm 111:1-2, 7-9

R./: The hearts of the just are secure, trusting in the Lord

Happy the man who fears the Lord,
 who takes delight in his commands.
His sons will be powerful on earth;
 the children of the upright are blessed. (R./)

He has no fear of evil news:
 with a firm heart he trusts in the Lord.
With a steadfast heart he will not fear;
 he will see the downfall of his foes. (R./)

Open-handed, he gives to the poor;
 his justice stands firm for ever.
His head will be raised in glory. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:13-17

Pharisees try to trap Jesus

They sent to Jesus some Pharisees and some Herodians to trap him in what he said. And they came and said to him, "Teacher, we know that you are sincere, and show deference to no one; for you do not regard people with partiality, but teach the way of God in accordance with truth. Is it lawful to pay taxes to the emperor, or not? Should we pay them, or should we not?" But knowing their hypocrisy, he said to them, "Why are you putting me to the test? Bring me a denarius and let me see it."


Coping with domestic and social conflicts

It is good to find our daily life issues mirrored in the Scriptures. We must keep an awareness of God, even amid our quarrels and banter. The virtue being taught in the first reading is perseverance, at whose heart there should be love, leavened with humor. Tobit's wife feels that her husband's piety goes a bit too far. When he doubts her honesty over the gift of a young goat, she can take it no longer, "Where are your charitable deeds now? Where are all your virtuous acts?" she demands. It may seem strange that today's reading ends with Tobit's wife's exasperation with her husband and poor, blind Tobit himself rendered speechless.

The gospel also ends with no clear answer, only an enigmatic, general principle, "Give to Caesar what is Caesar's but to God what is God's." When religion and politics clash today, as, for instance, in Ireland; whether we should legislate further in the direction of a permissive society, we might wish that the Lord had explained exactly what belongs to Caesar as distinct from what belongs to God. Jesus does not spell out where the boundary lies, but he always promotes honesty, compassion and forgiveness. The critics who questioned him were not seeking an honest answer; so, knowing their hypocrisy, Jesus looked at them, and began his reply with the question, "Why are you trying to trip me up?"

If we were to follow the homely example of Tobit, and are sincere and open in our faith, we will accomplish what is within our power, and the Holy Spirit can do with us more than we imagine, towards building up the Kingdom of God on earth.

A tricky question

The question put to Jesus was meant to get him into trouble. If he should answer, "Yes, pay your taxes to Caesar," he would lose the esteem of patriotic Jews who resented the Roman presence. If instead he says, "No, do not pay your taxes to Caesar" he could be arrested by the Romans for promoting revolution against the Roman system. Jesus was asked many awkward questions in the course of his public ministry and when the question came from a heart that was genuinely searching he took it very seriously. But on this occasion the questioners were simply out to get him.

After a pause, Jesus gave his answer to this question that was meant to trap him. In a succinct, enigmatic fashion he declares that we should return to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and give back to God what belongs to God. The coin can be given to Caesar because his image is stampted on it, but what is to be given to God is something much more fundamental. Later in that same chapter he will spell out what is due to God: We are to love God with all our heart, soul and mind. God is to be our first and greatest love, our primary commitment. That certainly can never be said of any human authority, political or otherwise. No Caesar, no political institution, no human institution can ever take the place of God in our lives.

Wednesday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (3:1-17

Tobit and Sarah pray to God in deepest anguish; they beg God to let them die

Then with much grief and anguish of heart I wept, and with groaning began to pray: "You are righteous, O Lord, and all your deeds are just; all your ways are mercy and truth; you judge the world. And now, O Lord, remember me and look favourably upon me. Do not punish me for my sins and for my unwitting offenses and those that my ancestors committed before you. They sinned against you, and disobeyed your commandments. So you gave us over to plunder, exile, and death, to become the talk, the byword, and an object of reproach among all the nations among whom you have dispersed us. And now your many judgments are true in exacting penalty from me for my sins. For we have not kept your commandments and have not walked in accordance with truth before you. So now deal with me as you will; command my spirit to be taken from me, so that I may be released from the face of the earth and become dust. For it is better for me to die than to live, because I have had to listen to undeserved insults, and great is the sorrow wihin me.

Command, O Lord, that I be released from this distress; release me to go to the eternal home, and do not, O Lord, turn your face away from me. For it is better for me to die than to see so much distress in my life and to listen to insults."

On the same day, at Ecbatana in Media, it also happened that Sarah, the daughter of Raguel, was reproached by one of her father's maids. For she had been married to seven husbands, and the wicked demon Asmodeus had killed each of them before they had been with her as is customary for wives. So the maid said to her, "You are the one who kills your husbands. See, you have already been married to seven husbands and have not borne the name of a single one of them. Why do you beat us? Because your husbands are dead? Go with them. May we never see a son or daughter of yours."

On that day she was grieved in spirit and wept. When she had gone up to her father's upper room, she intended to hang herself. But she thought it over and said, "Never shall they reproach my father, saying to him, "You had only one beloved daughter but she hanged herself because of her distress.' And I shall bring my father in his old age down in sorrow to Hades. It is better for me not to hang myself, but to pray the Lord that I may die and not listen to these reproaches anymore."

At that same time, with hands outstretched toward the window, she prayed and said, "Blessed are you, merciful God. Blessed is your name forever; let all your works praise you forever. And now, Lord, I turn my face to you, and raise my eyes toward you. Command that I be released from the earth and not listen to such reproaches any more. You know, O Master, that I am innocent of any defilement with a man, and that I have not disgraced my name or the name of my father in the land of my exile. I am my father's only child; he has no other child to be his heir; and he has no close relative or other kindred for whom I should keep myself as wife. Already seven husbands of mine have died. Why should I still live? But if it is not pleasing to you, O Lord, to take my life, hear me in my disgrace."

At that very moment, the prayers of both of them were heard in the glorious presence of God. So Raphael was sent to heal both of them: Tobit, by removing the white films from his eyes, so that he might see God's light with his eyes; and Sarah,

Responsorial: Psalm 24:2-9

R./: To you, O Lord, I lift my soul

I trust you, let me not be disappointed;
 do not let my enemies triumph.
Those who hope in you shall not be disappointed,
 but only those who wantonly break faith. (R./)

Lord, make me know your ways.
 Lord, teach me your paths.
 Make me walk in your truth, and teach me:
 for you are God my saviour. (R./)

In you I hope all the day long
 because of your goodness, O Lord.
 Remember your mercy, Lord,
 and the love you have shown from of old.
 Do not remember the sins of my youth.
 In your love remember me. (R./)

The Lord is good and upright.
He shows the path to those who stray.
He guides the humble in the right path;
 he teaches his way to the poor. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:18-27

In the resurrection, they will not marry. God of the living, not of the dead

Some Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to him and asked him a question, saying, "Teacher, Moses wrote for us that 'if a man's brother dies, leaving a wife but no child, the man shall marry the widow and raise up children for his brother.' There were seven brothers; the first married and, when he died, left no children; and the second married her and died, leaving no children; and the third likewise; none of the seven left children. Last of all the woman herself died. In the resurrection whose wife will she be? For the seven had married her."

Jesus said to them, "Is not this the reason you are wrong, that you know neither the scriptures nor the power of God? For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. And as for the dead being raised, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the story about the bush, how God said to him, 'I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob'? He is God not of the dead, but of the living; you are quite wrong."


Marriage and Family

Jesus' provocative remarks about marriage are followed by his promise that heaven awaits those who are faithful. We will rise but we will be radically changed, and so will the entire earth be radically new. Marriage and family will be transformed, too, but hardly destroyed. Love will be the determining factor. Our future destiny is decided on such works of mercy as: whether or not we feed the hungry, help the thirsty, clothe the naked, comfort the sick, visit prisoners, and so on (Mt 25:40). If love for others is so remembered and rewarded, surely the love and self-sacrifice in marriage and family life will be too.

Tobit's story points to prayer being answered in the marriage of Tobias to Sarah. This was the providential result of Tobit's becoming blind and his son's subsequent search for a cure for him. The young man's journey not only has him find a cure for his father's blindness, but enables the old man to see his grandchildren and to die in peace. This story speaks of the profound link between marriage and family, loyalty and mutual support.

The gospel declares that patience will have its reward. Jesus defends belief in the resurrection of the body, in a transformed state. But affirming belief in the resurrection of individuals would hardly win the argument unless his listeners already had a deep trust in God's love and compassion. Faith in the value of life and love, and in God as bountifully generous, makes all the difference. We will not be raised up to half-life or half-love. What that fullness of life and love will be remains God's secret, but it is our highest destiny.

Wondering about the afterlife

Whether human beings have any prospect of an afterlife is a question that has intrigued people for millenia. In today's gospel, Jesus is approached by the members of a party in Judaism, the Sadducees, who saw no prospect of a life after death. They recognized as Sacred Scripture only the first five books of the Bible, the Pentateuch, and found no evidence there to suggest any hope of life beyond this earthly, bodily existence. They challenge Jesus as one whom they know has a different view on this issue. The scenario they put to Jesus indicates a view of the afterlife as simply and extension of this earthly life. But Jesus proposes another scenario: "When they rise from the dead, men and women do not marry; no, they are like the angels in heaven."

In Christian belief, the life that awaits us in heaven is not just a continuation of life on earth; it is qualitatively different. Writing to the Corinthians St Paul speaks about this life beyond death in terms of transformation. "We shall all be changed," he says (1 Cor 15:50). In that same letter he states that love does not fade away; love endures into eternity. Our love for the Lord and for each other will be perfected in heaven, even though it will be expressed in a very different way to how it is expressed on earth. We can be sure, therefore, that because of the transformation that awaits us we will be more like the person God wills us to be and always intended us to be.

Thursday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (6-8 (passim

The marriage celebration of Tobias and Sarah, and their devout partnership

When he entered Media and was approaching Ecbatana, Raphael said to the young man, "Brother Tobias." "Here I am," he answered. Then Raphael said to him, "We must stay this night in the home of Raguel. He is your relative, and he has a daughter named Sarah. Now when they entered Ecbatana, Tobias said to him, "Brother Azariah, take me straight to our brother Raguel." So he took him to Raguel's house, where they found him sitting beside the courtyard door. They greeted him first, and he replied, "Joyous greetings, brothers; welcome and good health." Then he brought them into his house. Then Raguel slaughtered a ram from the flock and received them very warmly.

When they had bathed and washed themselves and had reclined to dine, Tobias said to Raphael, "Brother Azariah, ask Raguel to give me my kinswoman Sarah." But Raguel overheard it and said to the lad, "Eat and drink, and be merry tonight. For no one except you, brother, has the right to marry my daughter Sarah. Likewise I am not at liberty to give her to any other man than yourself, because you are my nearest relative. But let me explain to you the true situation more fully, my child. I have given her to seven men of our kinsmen, and all died on the night when they went in to her. But now, my child, eat and drink, and the Lord will act on behalf of you both." But Tobias said, "I will neither eat nor drink anything until you settle the things that pertain to me." So Raguel said, "I will do so. She is given to you in accordance with the decree in the book of Moses, and it has been decreed from heaven that she be given to you. Take your kinswoman; from now on you are her brother and she is your sister. She is give to you from today and forever. May the Lord of heaven, my child, guide and prosper you both this night and grant you mercy and peace." Then Raguel summoned his daughter Sarah. When she came to him he took her by the hand and gave her to Tobias, saying, "Take her to be your wife in accordance with the law and decree written in the book of Moses. Take her and bring her safely to your father. And may the God of heaven prosper your journey with his peace." Then he called her mother and told her to bring writing material; and he wrote out a copy of a marriage contract, to the effect that he gave her to him as wife according to the decree of the law of Moses. Then they began to eat and drink.

Raguel called his wife Edna and said to her, "Sister, get the other room ready, and take her there." So she went and made the bed in the room as he had told her, and brought Sarah there. She wept for her daughter. Then, wiping away the tears, she said to her, "Take courage, my daughter; the Lord of heaven grant you joy in place of your sorrow. Take courage, my daughter." Then she went out.

When the parents had gone out and shut the door of the room, Tobias got out of bed and said to Sarah, "Sister, get up, and let us pray and implore our Lord that he grant us mercy and safety." So she got up, and they began to pray and implore that they might be kept safe. Tobias began by saying, "Blessed are you, O God of our ancestors, and blessed is your name in all generations forever. Let the heavens and the whole creation bless you forever. You made Adam, and for him you made his wife Eve as a helper and support. From the two of them the human race has sprung. You said, "It is not good that the man should be alone; let us make a helper for him like himself.' I now am taking this kinswoman of mine, not because of lust, but with sincerity. Grant that she and I may find mercy and that we may grow old together." And they both said, "Amen, Amen." Then they went to sleep for the night.

Responsorial: Psalm 127:1-5

R./: Happy are those who fear the Lord

O blessed are those who fear the Lord
 and walk in his ways.
By the labour of your hands you shall eat.
You will be happy and prosper. (R./)

Your wife like a fruitful vine
 in the heart of your house;
 your children like shoots of the olive,
 around your table. (R./)

Indeed thus shall be blessed
 the man who fears the Lord.
 May the Lord bless you from Zion
 all the days of your life. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:28-34

Love of God and love of neighbour excel all ritual sacrifice

One of the scribes came up to Jesus and put a question to him, 'Which is the first of all the commandments?' Jesus replied, "The first is, 'Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God, the Lord is one; you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.' The second is this, 'You shall love your neighbour as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these." Then the scribe said to him, "You are right, Teacher; you have truly said that 'he is one, and besides him there is no other;' and 'to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the strength,' and 'to love one's neighbour as oneself,', this is much more important that all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices." When Jesus saw that he answered wisely, he said to him, "You are not far from the kingdom of God." After that no one dared to ask him any question.


A noble, worthy kind of love

Some of the finest biblical glimpses of marriage and family life appear in the Book of Tobit. The bride's father, Raguel, expresses a noble view of marriage when he tells young Tobias, "Sarah is yours according to the rules laid down by Moses. Your marriage to her has been decided in heaven. From now on she is your beloved." This sense of God's blessing continues in the prayer of newly married husband: "Blessed are you, O Lord of our ancestors, who said, It is not good for the man to be alone. I take this wife not because of lust, but for a noble purpose. Call down your mercy on me and on her, and let us live together to a happy old age." After blessing God and receiving a blessing, the newly-weds went to bed for their first night together. The ideal of pre-marital chastity is a given, in this culture.

The gospel links love and commandment. Normally we do not think of love as a law but as a spontaneous response of one person to another. Yet how easily what is called love can be a cloak for lust, in contrast to the noble purpose of Tobias and Sarah in their marriage. True love is a giving of self, "with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength." It reaches out to others and loves them for themselves, to "love your neighbour as yourself." Such love is "worth more than any burnt offering or sacrifice." Without love everything else loses in value, while with it we are "not far from the reign of God."

The trials of love can chasten and purify the heart. Between the elderly couple, Tobit and Anna, divine providence worked to make the good better, the faithful heart all the more tenacious. The psalmist says of God's word, "The promises of the Lord are sure, like tried silver, freed from dross, sevenfold refined" (Ps 12:7). Silver ore was placed in a burning cauldron. With strong heat the slack was burnt off and the pure substance remained. Such is the way of true love. It requires a lifetime to become pure and strong, ready for eternal life.

Our relationship with God

Jesus is asked a number of questions that are vital to our relationship with God. One of these is at the beginning of today's gospel. A Jewish scribe comes up to Jesus and asks him, "Which is the first of all the commandments?" There were a lot of rules and regulations in the Jewish religion at that time. He wanted to know which one was the most important. In his answer Jesus gave more that he was asked for. He was asked for the first commandment; he gave the first and second commandment, the first being to love God with all our heart, soul, mind and strength, and the second being to love our neighbour as ourselves. In that way Jesus was showing that these two commandments are inseparable.

We cannot love God without loving our neighbour, and in loving our neighbour we are, at the same time, loving God. Yet, the two commandments are not on the same level, one is first and one is second. It is the love of God which is to be the primary love in our lives. We owe the greatest devotion to God. As Jesus says in one of the other gospels, "Seek first the kingdom of God." God as revealed in Jesus is to be our greatest love. If we are caught up into a loving relationship with God, it will overflow into a love of all those whom God loves, and our various human loves for other people will reflect something of God's love for them.

Friday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (11:5-17

The joyful reunion of Tobias and his parents

Anna was sitting, watching the road by which her son, would come. She was sure at once it must be he and said to the father, 'Here comes your son, with his companion.'

Raphael said to Tobias, before he reached his father, "I know that his eyes will be opened. Smear the gall of the fish on his eyes; the medicine will make the white films shrink and peel off from his eyes, and your father will regain his sight and see the light."

Then Anna ran up to her son and threw her arms around him, saying, "Now that I have seen you, my child, I am ready to die." And she wept. Then Tobit got up and came stumbling out through the courtyard door. Tobias went up to him, with the gall of the fish in his hand, and holding him firmly, he blew into his eyes, saying, "Take courage, father." With this he applied the medicine on his eyes, and it made them smart. Next, with both his hands he peeled off the white films from the corners of his eyes. Then Tobit saw his son and threw his arms around him, and he wept and said to him, "I see you, my son, the light of my eyes." Then he said,

"Blessed be God, and blessed be his great name, and blessed be all his holy angels. May his holy name be blessed throughout all the ages. Though he afflicted me, he has had mercy upon me. Now I see my son Tobias." So Tobit went in rejoicing and praising God at the top of his voice. Tobias reported to his father that his journey had been successful, that he had brought the money, that he had married Raguel's daughter Sarah, and that she was, indeed, on her way there, very near to the gate of Nineveh.

Then Tobit, rejoicing and praising God, went out to meet his daughter-in-law at the gate of Nineveh. When the people of Nineveh saw him coming, walking along in full vigor and with no one leading him, they were amazed. Before them all, Tobit acknowledged that God had been merciful to him and had restored his sight. When Tobit met Sarah the wife of his son Tobias, he blessed her saying, "Come in, my daughter, and welcome. Blessed be your God who has brought you to us, my daughter. Blessed be your father and your mother, blessed be my son Tobias, and blessed be you, my daughter. Come in now to your home, and welcome, with blessing and joy. Come in, my daughter." So on that day there was rejoicing among all the Jews who were in Nineveh.

Responsorial: from Psalm 145

R./: Praise the Lord, my soul

My soul, give praise to the Lord;
 I will praise the Lord all my days,
 make music to my God while I live. (R./)

It is the Lord who keeps faith for ever,
 who is just to those who are oppressed.
It is he who gives bread to the hungry,
 the Lord, who sets prisoners free. (R./)

It is the Lord who gives sight to the blind,
 who raises up those who are bowed down,
 the Lord, who protects the stranger
 and upholds the widow and orphan. (R./)

It is the Lord who loves the just
 but thwarts the path of the wicked.
The Lord will reign for ever,
 Zion's God, from age to age. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:35-37

Jesus explains that David was not the Messiah

While Jesus was teaching in the temple, he said, "How can the scribes say that the Messiah is the son of David? David himself, by the Holy Spirit, declared, 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, until I put your enemies under your feet." ' David himself calls him Lord; so how can he be his son?" And the large crowd was listening to him with delight.


Nurtured at home

All that one needs to interpret the story of Tobit is an appreciation of family. This is first formed at home and then within one's circle of friends, later echoed by our membership of the church. Paul refers to this family background when writing to Timothy, "From your infancy you have known the sacred Scriptures." Earlier he refers to the sincere faith "which belonged to your grandmother Lois and to your mother Eunice." A good home prepared Timothy for his apostolic ministry.

Such a home setting ought to be reflected in our churches. The Jerusalem temple was called the "house of God." In its Hebrew origins during their exodus from Egypt, their shrine for God was a simple nomad's tent providing a roof for the entire family. Tent-dwelling fostered intimacy, trust and a common sharing of sorrow or joys. The ark of the covenant was first housed in such a tent. David was blocked from building a house of cedar and mighty stones, because, God says, "from the day I led the Israelites out of Egypt to the present… I have been going about in a tent" (2 Samuel 7:6). The family home provides a norm for church and temple, and offers a guideline for our interpreting Scripture.

When we turn to today's gospel, we see an instance of religion turned into a business and the temple into a place for controversy. How easily this can happen if church people put more stress on esoteric questions instead of on the elementary virtues of love, patience, forgiveness, generosity, and prayer. Jesus refuses to answer the question about the messianic age on the grounds set by the questioners. We may recall another time when, on being asked when the reign of God would come, he replied, "It is not it a matter of reporting that it is 'here' or 'there.' The reign of God is already in your midst" (Luke 17:21).

Son of David

In today's gospel, there is an argument between Jesus and the Jewish scribes about the identity of the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. Jesus is confronting the teaching of the scribes according to which the Messiah will be the son of David. He quotes from one of the psalms to show that Messiah was to be not simply David's son but David's Lord. Although a descendant of David, Jesus, as Messiah, is declaring himself to be David's Lord. In other words, there is more to Israel's Messiah than the scribes appreciate. As the long awaited Messiah, Jesus is Lord, Lord of the Sabbath, Lord of David, Lord of all. One of the great confessions of the early church was, "Jesus is Lord." That was a very striking confession in a Jewish context, because up until the time of Jesus, the title "Lord" was given only to God, the God of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the God of Israel. Today's responsorial psalm, a Jewish prayer, declares "My soul, give praise to the Lord", to God. Jesus is Lord of Israel's greatest king, David; he is our Lord, Lord of each one of us, Lord of the church. Our calling is to live our lives under his Lordship, or, to put it in another way, to live as his servants, placing ourselves at the service of his purpose for our world.

Saturday of Week 9

1st Reading: Tobit (12:1, 5-15 etc

The wedding of Tobias and Sarah

When the wedding celebration was ended, Tobit called his son Tobias and said to him, "My child, see to paying the wages of the man who went with you, and give him a bonus as well." So Tobias called him and said, "Take for your wages half of all that you brought back, and farewell."

Then Raphael called the two of them privately and said to them, "Bless God and acknowledge him in the presence of all the living for the good things he has done for you. Bless and sing praise to his name. With fitting honour declare to all people the deeds of God. Do not be slow to acknowledge him. It is good to conceal the secret of a king, but to acknowledge and reveal the works of God, and with fitting honour to acknowledge him. Do good and evil will not overtake you. Prayer with fasting is good, but better than both is almsgiving with righteousness. A little with righteousness is better than wealth with wrongdoing. It is better to give alms than to lay up gold. For almsgiving saves from death and purges away every sin. Those who give alms will enjoy a full life, but those who commit sin and do wrong are their own worst enemies.

"I will now declare the whole truth to you and will conceal nothing from you. Already I have declared it to you when I said, "It is good to conceal the secret of a king, but to reveal with due honour the works of God.' So now when you and Sarah prayed, it was I who brought and read the record of your prayer before the glory of the Lord, and likewise whenever you would bury the dead. And that time when you did not hesitate to get up and leave your dinner to go and bury the dead, I was sent to you to test you. And at the same time God sent me to heal you and Sarah your daughter-in-law. I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who stand ready and enter before the glory of the Lord."

So now get up from the ground, and acknowledge God. See, I am ascending to him who sent me. Write down all these things that have happened to you." And he ascended. Then they stood up, and could see him no more. Then Tobit said: "Blessed be God who lives forever, because his kingdom lasts throughout all ages. For he afflicts, and he shows mercy; he leads down to Hades in the lowest regions of the earth, and he brings up from the great abyss, and there is nothing that can escape his hand."

Responsorial: Tobit 13:2, 6-8

R./: Blessed be God, who lives for ever

By turns he punishes and pardons;
 he sends men down to the depths of the underworld
 and draws them up from supreme destruction;
 no one can escape his hand. (R./)

If you return to him with all your heart and all your soul,
 behaving honestly towards him,
 then he will return to you
 and hide his face from you no longer. (R./)

Consider how well he has treated you;
 loudly give him thanks.
Bless the Lord of justice
 and extol the King of the ages. (R./)

I for my part sing his praise
 in the country of my exile;
 I make his power and greatness known
 to a nation that has sinned. (R./)

Gospel: Mark 12:38-44

This poor widow has given more than all others

In his teaching Jesus said, "Beware of the scribes, who like to walk around in long robes, and to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, and to have the best seats in the synagogues and places of honour at banquets. They devour widows' houses and for the sake of appearance say long prayers. They will receive the greater condemnation."

He sat down opposite the treasury, and watched the crowd putting money into the treasury. Many rich people put in large sums. A poor widow came and put in two small copper coins, which are worth a penny. Then he called his disciples and said to them, "Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put in more than all those who are contributing to the treasury. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."


Little Things Mean a Lot

Religion loses meaning if its leaders focus upon splendid vestments, guaranteed front seats in synagogues and churches, places of honour at banquets, long prayers. To correct such a distortion of religion, Jesus warmly praises the old woman putting her two small copper coins, worth about a couple of cents, into the collection box. In her intent, she contributed more than all the others; for they gave from their surplus while she gave from her dire need. This is another way of arriving at the end of the journey and of finishing the race. The widow gave herself totally to the Lord.

The widow's mite

The phrase widow's mite has made its way into the English language. It often refers to something small which, nonetheless, displays a tremendous generosity of spirit. The widow gave a very small amount of money to the temple treasure, but in giving that very little, she was giving everything she had to live on. Jesus identifies her to his own disciples as an example of a wonderful generosity of spirit. Jesus often encouraged his disciples to learn from people who were not his disciples. At this point in the gospel Jesus is in the Jerusalem, about to face into his passion. This woman who gave everything was a figure of Jesus who was soon to give everything on the cross. This seemingly insignificant widow who seemed to give next to nothing was, in reality, a living witness of divine generosity. The widow reminds us that there are saints in our midst that we don't often notice. A wonderful generosity of spirit can reveal itself in gestures that appear very ordinary and even insignificant to those observing. There can be times in our lives when we appear to have very little, in all kinds of ways, but if we give generously out of the little we have, we are rich in the eyes of the Lord.

Readings for the 10th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 1:1-7

God comforts us in our troubles so we may comfort others

Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, To the church of God that is in Corinth, including all the saints throughout Achaia: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and the God of all consolation, who consoles us in all our affliction, so that we may be able to console those who are in any affliction with the consolation with which we ourselves are consoled by God. For just as the sufferings of Christ are abundant for us, so also our consolation is abundant through Christ. If we are being afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation; if we are being consoled, it is for your consolation, which you experience when you patiently endure the same sufferings that we are also suffering. Our hope for you is unshaken; for we know that as you share in our sufferings, so also you share in our consolation.

Responsorial: Psalm 33:2-9

R./: Taste and see the goodness of the Lord

I will bless the Lord at all times,
 his praise always on my lips;
 in the Lord my soul shall make its boast.
The humble shall hear and be glad. (R./)

Glorify the Lord with me;
 together let us praise his name.
 I sought the Lord and he answered me;
 from all my terrors he set me free. (R./)

Look towards him and be radiant;
 let your faces not be abashed.
This poor man called; the Lord heard him
 and rescued him from all his distress. (R./)

The angel of the Lord is encamped
 around those who revere him, to rescue them.
Taste and see that the Lord is good.
They are happy who seek refuge in him. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:1-12

The Beatitudes as our principles for living

When he saw the crowds, Jesus went up the mountain; and after he sat down his disciples came to him. Then he began to speak, and taught them, saying:

"Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. "Blessed are those who mourn, for they will be comforted. "Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. "Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. "Blessed are the merciful, for they will receive mercy. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they will see God. "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God. "Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness' sake, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. "Blessed are you when people revile you and persecute you and utter all kinds of evil against you falsely on my account. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward is great in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.


Principles to live by

People who are more poor and neglected are not necessarily holier or more spiritual. Poverty is not in itself a biblical ideal, but sometimes it brings out the finest qualities in a disciple. Paul makes a connection between our need and God's gracious help; and then the gift of being able to console others. But poverty can just as easily lead to vice, to stealing, disregard for the property and even the lives of others. Of course these vices are also found among the wealthy, only under more sophisticated forms of greed, dominance or arrogance. Without money or rank, we are forced to rely on basic human resources.

Notably, the first of the beatitudes is spoken to the "poor in spirit", a kind of humility based upon dependence on God rather than on fame and fortune. It is linked to the patience and compassion which mark people as true disciples of Jesus. Poverty and mildness of spirit can be the school of compassion as well as purity of heart. More people are attracted to the faith by the compassion of its religious leaders than by any other virtue; more are turned away from religion by arrogance and dominance than by all other faults of those in charge of others, whether parents, teachers, priests or ministers. Today's texts are a call to merciful spirit of servant-leadership and point to the good results to be achieved. Such leadership from our bishops and priests fosters a strong, caring Catholic community, a persevering community and foreshadows the kingdome of God. In such a community, those who have shared the suffering of Christ will richly share in his consolation. When we are poor in spirit, we let God accomplish the beatitudes in us, and then through us for others.

Portraying God

Portrait painting is a very specialized skill. When I am in London I love to visit the portrait gallery just off Trafalgar Square. There are wonderful portraits there of all kinds of people from the present time back through the centuries. People like to have their portraits painted. If you are ever in Rome and you go to Piazza Navona you will find people sitting to have their portraits pained by local artists. I like to think of the beatitudes as painting a portrait. When Jesus spoke those beatitudes he was painting a portrait of himself. He is poor in spirit, in that he depends on God for everything; he is gentle and humble of heart; he mourns because God's will is not being done on earth as in heaven; he hungers and thirst for what is right, for what God wants, and is prepared to suffer to bring that about; he is merciful to the broken and the sinner; he has a purity of intention, wanting only what God wants; he works to make peace between God and humanity and among human beings. In painting a portrait of himself, Jesus was also painting a portrait of his followers. It is our portrait, and we are called to try and fit that portrait. We cannot become the person of the beatitudes on our own; we need the help of the Holy Spirit who works within us to mould us into the image and likeness of Christ.

Tuesday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 5:14-21

God has reconciled us and given us the ministry of reconciliation

For the love of Christ urges us on, because we are convinced that one has died for all; therefore all have died. And he died for all, so that those who live might live no longer for themselves, but for him who died and was raised for them.

From now on, therefore, we regard no one from a human point of view; even though we once knew Christ from a human point of view, we know him no longer in that way. So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away. Look, everything has become new. All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting the message of reconciliation to us. So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

Responsorial: Psalm 118:129-133, 135

R./: Lord, let your face shine on me

Your will is wonderful indeed;
 therefore I obey it.
The unfolding of your word gives light
 and teaches the simple. (R./)

I open my mouth and I sigh
 as I yearn for your commands.
Turn and show me your mercy;
 show justice to your friends. (R./)

Let my steps be guided by your promise;
 let no evil rule me.
Let your face shine on your servant
 and teach me your decrees. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 8:18-27

Jesus calms the storm. "Why were ye so afraid?"

Now when Jesus saw great crowds around him, he gave orders to go over to the other side. A scribe then approached and said, "Teacher, I will follow you wherever you go." And Jesus said to him, "Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." Another of his disciples said to him, "Lord, first let me go and bury my father." But Jesus said to him, "Follow me, and let the dead bury their own dead."

And when he got into the boat, his disciples followed him. A windstorm arose on the sea, so great that the boat was being swamped by the waves; but he was asleep. And they went and woke him up, saying, "Lord, save us. We are perishing." And he said to them, "Why are you afraid, you of little faith?" Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a dead calm. They were amazed, saying, "What sort of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him?"


The instructive power of the storm

Saint John Chrysostom's Homilies on Matthew were preached in Antioch and show his engagement with details of the text. His main objective was promoting morality, so that in dealing with any passage he concludes with an exhortation to some special virtue. Here is part of what he says about today's Gospel. The citation is long, but it is full of keen insights: "Behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, so that the ship was covered with the waves, but he was asleep." Jesus took them with him, not by chance but in order to make them spectators of the miracle that was to take place. For like an excellent trainer, he was anointing them with a view to both objects; as well to be undismayed in dangers, a to be modest in honours. Having sent away the rest, he kept them and lets them be tossed with the tempest; at once correcting this, and disciplining them to bear trials nobly. For while the former miracles were great indeed, this one contained also in it a major kind of teaching, and was a sign like that of old. For this reason he takes with him only the disciples. For as when there was a display of miracles, he also lets the people be present; so when trial and terrors were rising up against him, he takes with him none but the champions of the whole world, whom he was to train. While Matthew merely mentioned that "he was asleep," Luke says that it was "on a pillow;" meaning both his freedom from pride, and to teach us hereby a high degree of austerity."

Chrysostom goes on to moralise about the disciples' fear: "When the tempest was at its height and the sea raging, they awoke him, saying, "Lord, save us: we perish." But he rebuked them before he rebuked the sea, because as I said, these things were permitted for training purposes and they were an image of the trials that would come to them later. Yes, for after these things again, he often let them fall into serious tempests of misfortune; and Paul also said, "I would not have you ignorant that we were pressed beyond our strength, insomuch that we despaired even of life;" and again, "Who delivered us from so great a death." Indeed their very alarm was a valuable occurrence, that the miracle seemed all the greater and their remembrance of the event be made lasting. Having first expected to be lost, they were saved, and having acknowledged the danger, they learned the greatness of the miracle. So that is why he sleeps: for had he been awake when it happened, they would not have been fearful, or they would not have begged him. Therefore he sleeps, to give occasion for their timidity and make clearer their perception of what was happening."

He concludes by saying that Jesus "stretched out no rod, as Moses did, neither did he stretch forth his hands to Heaven, nor did he need any prayer, but as for a master commanding his handmaid, or a Creator his creature, so did he quiet and curb it by word and command only; and all the surge was immediately at an end, and no trace of the disturbance remained. This the evangelist declared saying, "And there was a great calm." And that which had been spoken in praise of the Father, he showed forth again by his works. For it says, "he spoke and the stormy wind ceased." So here likewise, he spoke, and "there was a great calm." And the multitudes who wondered at him; would not have marvelled, had he done it in such manner as did Moses."

Stormy waters

Inf Matthew's time the story of the storm at sea would have resonated with the readers' own experience. They would often have found themselves praying the prayer of the disciples in the boat, "Save us, Lord, we are going down." We may have prayed a version of that prayer ourselves, either in relation to our own personal lives or in relation to the life of the church as a whole. Jesus addresses his fearful disciples as people of "little faith." They are somewhere between no faith and full faith. Many of us can find ourselves in that in-between place, people of little faith, especially when the storms threaten to engulf us. We can easily identify with the prayer of the man in the gospels, "Lord, I believe, help my unbelief." Jesus, who had been asleep in the storm, brought the fragile boat with its fearful disciples through the storm into a place of calm. In stormy times that expose our vulnerability and frailty, the Lord remains with the church and with each of us as individuals, keeping us steady and guiding us to our destination. This passage would have reassured Matthew's church and can reassure us today that the Lord is always stronger than the storm which threatens to overwhelm us.

Wednesday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 3:4-11

The new covenant of grace is based not on some written law but on the Spirit

Such is the confidence that we have through Christ toward God. Not that we are competent of ourselves to claim anything as coming from us; our competence is from God, who has made us competent to be ministers of a new covenant, not of letter but of spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life.

Now if the ministry of death, chiseled in letters on stone tablets, came in glory so that the people of Israel could not gaze at Moses' face because of the glory of his face, a glory now set aside, how much more will the ministry of the Spirit come in glory? For if there was glory in the ministry of condemnation, much more does the ministry of justification abound in glory. Indeed, what once had glory has lost its glory because of the greater glory; for if what was set aside came through glory, much more has the permanent come in glory.

Responsorial: Psalm 98:5-9

R./: Holy is the Lord our God

Exalt the Lord our God;
 bow down before Zion, his footstool.
He the Lord is holy. (R./)

Among his priests were Aaron and Moses,
 among those who invoked his name was Samuel.
They invoked the Lord and he answered. (R./)

To them he spoke in the pillar of cloud.
They did his will; they kept the law,
 which he, the Lord, had given. (R./)

O Lord our God, you answered them.
For them you were a God who forgives;
 yet you punished all their offences. (R./)

Exalt the Lord our God;
 bow down before his holy mountain;
 for the Lord our God is holy. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:17-19

It’s not enough to keep the letter of the law; we must seek and do the will of God

Jesus said to his disciples, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, will be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.”


Conservative in changing times

If St. Paul's epistle reflects serious tensions, today's Gospel seeks harmony and enlightenment. As a wise man wrote, "There is a time for everything. A time to tear, and a time to sow. A time for war, and a time for peace." How well that idea of "a time to plant and a time to uproot" fits with our Lord's words today. In order to fulfil the Law and the Prophets he must uproot whatever is old and obsolete, to help us embrace the new. We are not to follow a dead code of law that has lost its meaing but a new living law of the Spirit. Paul calls us, like the Corinthians, to make a clear decision to move ahead.

Still, Jesus did not come to abolish the Law and the Prophets. We need to discern which old things are not yet obsolete, such as the ten commandments. This applies to many aspects of Church life, where some want to conserve traditions of the past which others consider overdue for renewal or outright discarding. Wiithout yielding to mere whims or short-term decisions, our Church needs to take on board some values, mainly democratic and participative, of our modern society, in order to share Christ's mind with our contemporaries. But Jesus and Paul tell us that it is the Spirit who gives life, so we must not be rigidly bound by rules which made sense to our Church in the past but which no longer offer hope for the future. With this outlook we can have mature discussion about the way forward in presenting the Gospel in ways required by the time in which we live. We must rely on prayer, dialogue and the guidance of the Holy Spirit who has called us to share in the responsibility of helping to build the Kingdom of God.

Not total abolition

As a devout Jew, Jesus was respectful of his own Jewish tradition. Matthew has him say, "don't imagine that I have come to abolish the Law and the Prophets." But he also declares that he has come to complete the Law and the Prophets, to bring their true intention to fulfilment. Jesus valued the good in his religious tradition, but was also open to renewal, since God was always prompting people forward. We too are called to respect the real values in our own religious tradition, while facing up to the shadow side to that tradition and being open and receptive to ways that can make that tradition intelligible for today. God is like the potter who reshapes what is there and make it better. The Spirit is always at work; our task is to keep up with what God is trying to do.

Thursday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 3:15-4:1, 3-6

God has shone in our minds to radiate the light of God's glory

My brethren, to this very day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their minds; but when one turns to the Lord, the veil is removed. Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. And all of us, with unveiled faces, seeing the glory of the Lord as though reflected in a mirror, are being transformed into the same image from one degree of glory to another; for this comes from the Lord, the Spirit.

Therefore, since it is by God's mercy that we are engaged in this ministry, we do not lose heart. And even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled to those who are perishing. In their case the god of this world has blinded the minds of the unbelievers, to keep them from seeing the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God. For we do not proclaim ourselves; we proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord and ourselves as your slaves for Jesus' sake. For it is the God who said, "Let light shine out of darkness," who has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

Responsorial: Psalm 84:9-14

R./: The glory of the Lord will dwell in our land

I will hear what the Lord God has to say,
 a voice that speaks of peace.
His help is near for those who fear him
 and his glory will dwell in our land. (R./)

Mercy and faithfulness have met,
 justice and peace have embraced.
Faithfulness shall spring from the earth
 and justice look down from heaven. (R./)

The Lord will make us prosper
 and our earth shall yield its fruit.
 Justice shall march before him
 and peace shall follow his steps. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:20-26

Whoever is angry with his brother or sister will be judged for it

Jesus said to his disciples: 'If your virtue goes no deeper than that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

"You have heard that it was said to those of ancient times, 'You shall not murder'; and 'whoever murders shall be liable to judgment.' But I say to you that if you are angry with a brother or sister, you will be liable to judgment; and if you insult a brother or sister, you will be liable to the council; and if you say, 'You fool,' you will be liable to the hell of fire. So when you are offering your gift at the altar, if you remember that your brother or sister has something against you, leave your gift there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother or sister, and then come and offer your gift. Come to terms quickly with your accuser while you are on the way to court with him, or your accuser may hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the guard, and you will be thrown into prison. Truly I tell you, you will never get out until you have paid the last penny.


Mountain Encounters

Our holy Scriptures suggest that mountains are a priveleged place where human beings can encounter God, and be transformed. St Paul refers to Mount Sinai, where Moses stayed with the Lord for forty days and he wrote the words of the covenant on the tablets of stone. Amazingly, as he came down from Mount Sinai, the skin of the face of Moses had become so radiant he had to veil his face ever afterwards (Exod 34:28-29). St Paul sees this as a profound spiritual encounter in which we also can take part. Like Moses on the Holy Mountain, we now enter into the immediate presence of Jesus. We enter behind the veil, opened up by Jesus' death on the cross (see Mt 27:51) and it is there that our full potential is revealed. Paul develops this idea of encounter with God as something open to everyone. All of us gazing on the Lord's glory with unveiled faces, are being transformed ever more fully into the image of God.

Three significant mountains feature in the Gospels: 1. The Mount of the Beatitudes, where Jesus delivered the Sermon on the Mount. 2. Mount Calvary, where the saving blood of Christ was shed for us. 3. The mount of the Ascension, where his final promise was given: "I am with you always, even to the end of time."

Today's Gospel teaching is from the Sermon on the Mount, spoken to the crowds on a hillside overlooking the Lake of Galilee. Jesus invites us to grow into a deeper level of virtue, so as to be transformed and be like him: "Do not grow angry, do not use abusive language, do not offer a gift on the altar without first being reconciled with neighbour." This advice may seem too elementary, ever to place us on the road to mystical experiences like Moses or Elijah or Jesus. Yet, it is charity, patience and forgiveness that draws us to Mount Calvary where Jesus died, that tore open the veil that separated us from the Holy of Holies, and that enables us like Moses to converse with God.

Going beyond the law

Jesus calls for a virtue that goes beyond what is called for by the Old Testament, or indeed by our own civil laws. The ideal of virtue he proposes is at the level of attitude and feeling and not simply at the level of action. The ten commandments relate to actions which are to be done or to be avoided. Jesus quotes one of the commandments at the beginning of our gospel reading, "You shall not kill." He goes on to prohibit not just the act of killing but attitudes and emotions that can lead people to kill each other. He warns against anger and the scorning of others that leads us to call them fools.

Most of us would regard the commandment, "Do not kill," as not applying to us because we are unlikely ever to want to kill someone else. But it comes to the level of feelings, attitudes and prejudices, we cannot escape so easily. We have all experienced anger and recognized its potentially destructive power. We have all judged others in ways that led us to speak of them disrespectfully. Even though we are not criminal at the level of action, we may fail at that underlying level of anger and resentment that Jesus talks about. If we are to reach this deeper virtue taught by Jesus, we know it can only be with God's help, with the help of the Holy Spirit, whose power at work within us can begin to shape all we do and how and why we do it.

Friday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 4:7-15

He who raised the Lord Jesus to life will raise us with him in our turn

Brothers and sisters, we have this treasure in clay jars, so that it may be made clear that this extraordinary power belongs to God and does not come from us.  We are afflicted in every way, but not crushed; perplexed, but not driven to despair;  persecuted, but not forsaken; struck down, but not destroyed;  always carrying in the body the death of Jesus, so that the life of Jesus may also be made visible in our bodies.  For while we live, we are always being given up to death for Jesus' sake, so that the life of Jesus may be made visible in our mortal flesh.  So death is at work in us, but life in you.

 But just as we have the same spirit of faith that is in accordance with scripture - "I believed, and so I spoke" - we also believe, and so we speak,  because we know that the one who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus, and will bring us with you into his presence.  Yes, everything is for your sake, so that grace, as it extends to more and more people, may increase thanksgiving, to the glory of God.

Responsorial: Psalm 115:10-11, 15-18

R./: To you, Lord, I will offer a sacrifice of praise

I trusted, even when I said:
 'I am sorely afflicted,'
 and when I said in my alarm:
 'No man can be trusted.' (R./)

O precious in the eyes of the Lord
 is the death of his faithful.
Your servant, Lord, your servant am I;
 you have loosed my bonds. (R./)

A thanksgiving sacrifice I make:
 I will call on the Lord's name.
 My vows to the Lord I will fulfil
 before all his people. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:27-32

Perfect fidelity includes right mental attitudes and motives

Jesus said to his disciples, "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall not commit adultery.' But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart. If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to be thrown into hell. And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away; it is better for you to lose one of your members than for your whole body to go into hell.

"It was also said, 'Whoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.' But I say to you that anyone who divorces his wife, except on the ground of unchastity, causes her to commit adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.


Treasure in earthen vessels

Two phrases shine out in today's readings, "treasure in earthen vessels"; "whoever looks lustfully at another". In Paul's words, we are only "clay jars," not immune to suffering or temptation. He adds his eloquent statement about living in hope, in spite of whatever may happen in our lives. "Afflicted in every way but not crushed; full of doubts, but not despairing; persecuted, but not destroyed." His final words make good sense to both mystic and Christian activist: "we carry about in our bodies the dying of Jesus, so that in our bodies the life of Jesus also may be revealed."

In his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus proposes genuine ideals, but often in the language of hyperbole. It would be wrong to gouge out one's right eye or to hack off one's right hand, just because they have led us into temptation. There is a shock treatment in his mode of address, like his other words about "hating" father and mother in order to love God (Matthew 10:37). What Jesus says about adultery, whether in the heart only, by lusting after another person or in action, by breaking up a happy marriage, must be taken seriously, as an ideal. He sets up ideals for us, and although we are tempted, undergo doubts and confusion, and at times falter and sin and need forgiveness, they remain a precious guideline for us, for as long as we live in our "earthen vessels."

Taken seriously, but not literally

How could Jesus say, "If your right eye should cause you to sin, tear it out and throw it away"? Clearly this is an exaggerated expression, designed to shock; he does not intend his words to be taken literally. This image of tearing out our right eye links back to his view of adultery not just as a physical act but as an intention or a desire, "whoever looks at a woman lustfully." He is inviting us to consider the roots of wicked actions, arising from the passions of our human heart. This is the deeper virtue that he referred to a few verses earlier.

What the Lord wants of us is not just a change of behaviour but a change of heart, a purifying of desire and intention. This interior transformation is understood elsewhere in the Scriptures to be the work of the Spirit. It is the Spirit of God who renews the human heart. It is above all in prayer that we open ourselves to the Spirit of God. It is above all in silence that we seek the Lord's face, in the words of today's responsorial psalm, and open ourselves to the coming of the Lord's Spirit, who works within us to create in us a heart that reflects the heart of Jesus.

Saturday of Week 10

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 5:14ff.

The old order gives place to the new. God has given us the ministry of reconciliation

From now on, brethren, we regard no one from a human point of view; even though we once knew Christ from a human point of view, we know him no longer in that way. So if anyone is in Christ, there is a new creation: everything old has passed away; see, everything has become new. All this is from God, who reconciled us to himself through Christ, and has given us the ministry of reconciliation; that is, in Christ God was reconciling the world to himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and entrusting the message of reconciliation to us. So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

Responsorial: Psalm 102:1-4, 8-9, 11-12

R./: The Lord is kind and merciful

My soul, give thanks to the Lord,
 all my being, bless his holy name.
 My soul, give thanks to the Lord
 and never forget all his blessings. (R./)

It is he who forgives all your guilt,
 who heals every one of your ills,
 who redeems your life from the grave,
 who crowns you with love and compassion. (R./)

The Lord is compassion and love,
 slow to anger and rich in mercy.
His wrath will come to an end;
 he will not be angry for ever. (R./)

For as the heavens are high above the earth
 so strong is his love for those who fear him.
 As far as the east is from the west
 so far does he remove our sins. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:33ff.

Swear no oaths, but speak with a simple "Yes" or "No." Anything stronger is from the evil one

Jesus said to his disciples, "Again, you have heard that it was said to those of ancient times, 'You shall not swear falsely, but carry out the vows you have made to the Lord.' But I say to you, Do not swear at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God, or by the earth, for it is his footstool, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. And do not swear by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. Let your word be 'Yes, Yes' or 'No, No'; anything more than this comes from the evil one.


Growing up in Christ

Some statements in today's readings suggest that we are already saved, in a way that prevents us ever sliding back into sinful or selfish ways. St Paul wants us to project our thoughts forward to imagine the kingdom of God as fully realised on the earth. He writes that, "Since one died for all, all have died." "If anyone is in Christ he is a new creation. The old order has passed away; now all is new."

The kingdom of God is a wonderful idea and glorious dream, but we still wonder how much of Jesus' teachings could really be applied in this world of ours? Admittedly, some Christians try to follow them literally, and keep their speech simple and exact, as honest as the blue sky on a spring morning. Most people, however, feel the need to say more than a crisp "Yes" or an absolute "No." We consider it fair to have our ID card checked out, our driver's license verified, and are willing in court to swear on the Bible that our words are true. We and our world are not yet fully there, in kingdom mode.

Yes, somehow we are already sealed and anointed by the Spirit who is the pledge of eternal life. By the grace of God we are part of that new creation, but we also need God to be patient and forgiving as we stumble on our pilgrim way towards the Kingdom. It is helpful to consider ourselves as still growing up in Christ. We are wounded healers, and God has not finished with us yet.


What's wrong with oaths?

Jesus rejects the taking of oaths, the kind of swearing that seeks to control God for one's own purposes, swearing by heaven, God's throne, or by earth, God's footstool, or by Jerusalem, the city of God. The wrongness of taking the name of God in a trivial way was recognised in Jewish tradition, "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain".

What's wrong with swearing an oath or making a vow? First, he is not saying we should refuse to make an oath if we are asked to do so in court. (In fact, Jesus himself replied under oath at his trial in Jerusalem – Matt 26:64). And the wedding ceremony would be much poorer if spouses were not allowed make vows of fidelity to each other! What Jesus means is that Christians should be totally trustworthy and completely honest, whatever the circumstances. We should hardly ever need to swear an oath or make a vow, because we should be people who always speak the truth.

Jesus wants his followers to be people whose YES always means YES and whose NO means NO. To be reliable characters who always keep their word, that is, people of total integrity. If we are people like that, then there will be simply no need for us to swear oaths. No need to supplement our statements with things like: "Scout's honour", "On my mother's life" or "cross my heart and hope to die!" - and still less with "I swear to God!"



Readings for the 11th Week, Ordinary Time (Cycle 1)

Monday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 6:1-10

Paradox of the apostolate: a poor man who enriches many

As we work together with Jesus, we urge you also not to accept the grace of God in vain. For he says, "At an acceptable time I have listened to you, and on a day of salvation I have helped you." See, now is the acceptable time; see, now is the day of salvation. We are putting no obstacle in anyone's way, so that no fault may be found with our ministry, but as servants of God we have commended ourselves in every way: through great endurance, in afflictions, hardships, calamities, beatings, imprisonments, riots, labours, sleepless nights, hunger; by purity, knowledge, patience, kindness, holiness of spirit, genuine love, truthful speech, and the power of God; with the weapons of righteousness for the right hand and for the left; in honour and dishonour, in ill repute and good repute. We are treated as impostors, and yet are true; as unknown, and yet are well known; as dying, and see, we are alive; as punished, and yet not killed; as sorrowful, yet always rejoicing; as poor, yet making many rich; as having nothin, and yet possessing everything.

Responsorial: Psalm 97:1-4

R./: The Lord has made known his salvation

Sing a new song to the Lord
 for he has worked wonders.
His right hand and his holy arm
 have brought salvation. (R./)

The Lord has made known his salvation;
 has shown his justice to the nations.
He has remembered his truth and love
 for the house of Israel. (R./)

All the ends of the earth
 have seen the salvation of our God.
Shout to the Lord all the earth,
 ring out your joy. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:38-42

The challenge to offer the other cheek and go the extra mile

Jesus said to his disciples, "You have heard that it was said, 'An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.' But I say to you, Do not resist an evildoer. But if anyone strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other also; and if anyone wants to sue you and take your coat, give your cloak as well; and if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile. Give to everyone who begs from you, and do not refuse anyone who wants to borrow from you.


Paul's tenacity

In St Paul's reminiscences today we get some idea of his heroic endurance during his wandering ministry for the sake of the Gospel. At a time when some church members in Corinth were criticising Paul for his faults, and for not coming to make another visit to them, he tells them he has often been treated like this in the past. "We are called imposters, and yet we are truthful; nobodies but in fact are well known; considered dead, yet here we are alive; punished, but not put to death; sorrowful, though always rejoicing; poor, yet enriching many; seeming to have nothing, yet everything is ours." He could stand firm for the Gospel, not only against external threats and dangers but even in face of some temporary wavering by Peter himself, about the equal treatment of Gentile converts (Gal. 2:1-10). His unswerving obedience to his mission eventually found him numbered among the pillars of the Church. He wrote: "poor, yet enriching many; called an imposter, yet truthful."

We are priveleged to have such witnesses within our family of faith, and thank God for their inspiration. Jesus' ideals in the Sermon on the Mount are exemplified for us in a dramatic way by Paul's apostolate, in the perseverance and huge level of generosity of spirit, going the extra mile, turning the other cheek, and sharing whatever he had with others. The lives of such saints demonstrate the hidden potential in each of us to be givers more than takers, up-builders rather than critics, contributors to love in our world.

The two ways

Jesus calls on his disciples not to repay evil with evil, but to respond to evil with goodness. The worst instinct in human nature is to respond in an evil way to goodness; the crucifixion of Jesus was an example of that instinct. The best instinct of human nature is to overcome evil with good. This in fact could be termed the divine instinct, God's instinct. It was the way of Jesus. He overcame the evil that was done to him with good. In the very moment when he was being violently rejected he revealed his love most fully. He lived and died to overcome evil with good.

It is hard to remain good in the face of evil, to remain loving in the face of hostility, to be faithful in the face of betrayal, to be peacemakers in the face of hostility. We simply could not do it by our own strength alone. We need God's strength, God's resources, God's Spirit - but this strength and grace is promised to us. St Paul calls on us "not to neglect the grace of God you have received." God is always gracing us and if we rely on his grace we can keep working towards that ideal of overcoming evil with good.

Tuesday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 8:1-9

Those who generously helped to finance Paul's mission were richly blessed

We want you to know, brothers and sisters, about the grace of God that has been granted to the churches of Macedonia; for during a severe ordeal of affliction, their abundant joy and their extreme poverty have overflowed in a wealth of generosity on their part. For, as I can testify, they voluntarily gave according to their means, and even beyond their means, begging us earnestly for the privilege of sharing in this ministry to the saints, and this, not merely as we expected; they gave themselves first to the Lord and, by the will of God, to us, so that we might urge Titus that, as he had alrady made a beginning, so he should also complete this generous undertaking among you.

Now as you excel in everything, in faith, in speech, in knowledge, in utmost eagerness, and in our love for you, so we want you to excel also in this generous undertaking. I do not say this as a command, but I am testing the genuineness of your love against the earnestness of others. For you know the generous act of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though he was rich, yet for your sakes he became poor, so that by his poverty you might become rich.

Responsorial: Psalm 145:2, 5-9

R./: Praise the Lord, my soul

I will praise the Lord all my days,
 make music to my God while I live. (R./)

He is happy who is helped by Jacob's God,
 whose hope is in the Lord his God,
 who alone made heaven and earth,
 the seas and all they contain. (R./)

It is he who keeps faith for ever,
 who is just to those who are oppressed.
It is he who gives bread to the hungry,
 the Lord, who sets prisoners free. (R./)

It is the Lord who gives sight to the blind,
 who raises up those who are bowed down,
 the Lord, who protects the stranger
 and upholds the widow and orphan. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 5:43-48

Love your enemies and so be perfect, just like your heavenly Father

Jesus said to his disciples, "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbour and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you, so that you may be children of your Father in heaven; for he makes his sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the righteous and on the unrighteous. For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? And if you greet only your brothers and sisters, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same? Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.



That gospel command to love our enemies and to pray for our persecutors seems unrealistic, until we remember Jesus' own heroic example, praying for his executioners, as he hung on the cross (Luke 22:34). Paul also urges generosity as he tells the church at Corinth about the outstanding generosity shown by the churches of Macedonia. He was on a campaign of collecting alms from the Corinthians for the church at Jerusalem. In this he was showing notable goodwill towards the conservative Jewish Christians, a community that had persecuted him, blocked his apostolic work for the gentiles and even questioned his right to be an apostle.

Both readings put a high value on forgiveness and reconciliation. We are asked to swallow our pride and turn away from our any instinctively harsh judgment of others. If even King Ahab repented, it shows how others can change. No matter how justified our anger or how eloquent our condemnation, we need to be forgiving and grow to be perfect as our Father is perfect.

What about our enemies?

It's not enough for us not to take revenge. Jesus goes further and requires us to love our enemies. It is a very extreme demand, for who else is left to love, after one has loved the enemy? Love like this is not just a feeling but a basic attitude of mind and will, to be expressed in acts of kindness. We might think of the parable of the good Samaritan, where this foreigner gives loving service to a badly injured Jew on the roadside. By long established convention, Jews would have been regarded by most Samaritans as enemies, to be hated and avoided.

The unconditional love proposed by Jesus would lead us to actually pray for our enemy, as when Jesus prayed forgiveness for those who were responsible for his crucifixion. The human tendency is to limit our goodwill to those for whom we have feelings of warmth and affection. This is natural love, and its value is clear to everyone. But it is not exceptional; and Jesus wants his friends to stretch their love beyond those whom they would naturally embrace. This is a challenge that stretches us. We are meant to reveal, when relating to others, the God whose love reaches out to all. He causes the sun to rise on bad people as well as good, and the rain to fall on honest and dishonest alike. This ideal is only possible in the power of the Holy Spirit who lives among us and within us.

Wednesday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 9:6-11

Reaping what we sow

Brothers and sisters, here is the point: the one who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and the one who sows generously will also reap generously. Each of you must give as you have made up your mind, not reluctantly or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful giver. And God is able to provide you with every blessing in abundance, so that by always having enough of everything, you may share abundantly in every good work. As it is written, "He scatters abroad, he gives to the poor; his righteousness endures forever." He who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness.

You will be enriched in every way for your great generosity, which will produce thanksgiving to God through us.

Responsorial: Psalm 111:1-4, 9

R./: Happy are those who fear the Lord

Happy the man who fears the Lord,
 who takes delight in his commands.
His sons will be powerful on earth;
 the children of the upright are blessed. (R./)

Riches and wealth are in his house;
 his justice stands firm for ever.
He is a light in the darkness for the upright:
 he is generous, merciful and just. (R./)

Open-handed, he gives to the poor;
 his justice stands firm for ever.
His head will be raised in glory. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 6:1-6, 16-18

Beware of practicing your piety in public

Jesus said to his disciples, "Beware of practicing your piety before others in order to be seen by them; for then you have no reward from your Father in heaven.

"So whenever you give alms, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be praised by others. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. But when you give alms, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, so that your alms may be done in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.

"And whenever you pray, do not be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, so that they may be seen by others. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. But whenever you pray, go into your room and shut the door and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.

"And whenever you fast, do not look dismal, like the hypocrites, for they disfigure their faces so as to show others that they are fasting. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that your fasting may be seen not by others but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.


Cheerful giving

We must give for God's sake rather than for show; seek to be anonymous rather than celebrities. At the same time, we cannot keep up our standards without getting good example from others. And in turn, we need to give some good example ourselves. There is value in remembering God's deeds in the lives of his saints. Paul even goes so far as to claim that the more we give to others, the more we ourselves will have, since "Whoever sows sparingly will reap sparingly, and whoever sows generously will reap generously." He seems to echo the Book of Proverbs (11:24-25), one of the most practical books in the entire Bible. It never stirs up a prophetic tempest, and cautiously tempers excessive zeal.

To need constant approval is not psychologically or spiritually healthy. Such people are fundamentally insecure about their own worth. They are so taken up with this, and with seeking praise and recognition, that they have little time for others. In turn, others find it difficult to converse with them, and even their friends drop off and keep their distance. Jesus uses a graphic image, "Do not blow a horn before you in synagogues and streets, looking for applause." He goes on to propose a low-key approach to almsgiving, doing it anonymously, "not letting your left hand know what your right hand is doing." The real motive for acts of mercy should be that they are what human decency requires, and not needing any other reward than that, "your Father who sees in secret will repay you."

Whenever we are in a position to help them, whether with material or spiritual help, we must respect both our own dignity and their's. One way is by anonymous giving, so nobody else knows who did it except God "who sees in secret." Another way, Paul suggests, is to give so cheerfully that we get more joy out of giving than the other does in receiving our gift. In this case, let it be with love. We are happy in seeing others happy, because we love them.

Not preening but shining

Jesus says, "Be careful not to parade your good deeds before others to attract their notice." But earlier in the same sermon, he seems to have said the very opposite, "Let you light shine before others, so that they may see your good deeds and give glory to your Father in heaven." There seems to be a tension between these sayings. Yet, there is truth in both. We are not to hide the light of our faith, or hid it under a basket. Rather, we are to publicly proclaim our faith by our lifestyle, by what we actually do.

On the other hand, it's wrong to be merely self-promoting, trying to draw attention to ourselves, seeking praise or reputation. Rather, our living of our faith is because that is what God wants of us. It may be helpful to wonder, "Who is honoured by my self-publicising? Is it myself or is it God?" Alternatively, "Who am I trying to serve by my good deeds? Is it myself or is it the Lord?" When we pray "Hallowed by your name, your kingdom come" we remember that our main task in life is to give glory to God.

Thursday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 11:1-11

Paul asks for their patience; he will not be a financial burden to them

I wish you would bear with me in a little foolishness. Do bear with me. I feel a divine jealousy for you, for I promised you in marriage to one husband, to present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. But I am afraid that as the serpent deceived Eve by its cunning, your thoughts will be led astray from a sincere and pure devotion to Christ. For if someone comes and proclaims another Jesus than the one we proclaimed, or if you receive a different spirit from the one you received, or a different gospel from the one you accepted, you submit to it readily enough I think that I am not in the least inferior to these super-apostles. I may be untrained in speech, but not in knowledge; certainly in every way and in all things we have made this evident to you.

Did I commit a sin by humbling myself so that you might be exalted, because I proclaimed God's good news to you free of charge? I robbed other churches by accepting support from them in order to serve you. And when I was with you and was in need, I did not burden anyone, for my needs were supplied by the friends who came from Macedonia. So I refrained and will continue to refrain from burdening you in any way. As the truth of Christ is in me, this boast of mine will not be silenced in the regions of Achaia. And why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do.

Responsorial: Psalm 110:1-4, 7-8)

R./: I will thank the Lord with all my heart

I will thank the Lord with all my heart
 in the meeting of the just and their assembly.
Great are the works of the Lord;
 to be pondered by all who love them. (R./)

Majestic and glorious his work,
 his justice stands firm for ever.
He makes us remember his wonders.
The Lord is compassion and love. (R./)

His works are justice and truth:
 his precepts are all of them sure,
 standing firm for ever and ever:
 they are made in uprightness and truth. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 6:7-15

Our prayer must not be too wordy and must include a spirit of forgiveness

Jesus said, "When you are praying, do not heap up empty phrases as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard because of their many words. Do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him.

"Pray then in this way: Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And do not bring us to the time of trial, but rescue us from the evil one. For if you forgive others their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you; but if you do not forgive others, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.


Trying to clear the air

Some critical voices in the Corinthian church accused Paul of merely "rattling" words, seeing him as just a talker, not a doer. They felt he should be more tolerant and and learned an eloquent. He did not fit their exalted expectation of what an apostle should be like. Paul does not back down in the face of their rejection but claims the right and privilege of speaking openly to them. He lashed out at them for welcoming roving preachers who undermined their loyalty to Paul himself and promoted a different vision of Jesus. He called them troublemakers, "super-apostles," and implies that these so-called apostles were making a good living off the people, and treating the ministry as a profitable career. By contrast, he and Barnabas worked manually for their living (1 Cor 9) so that the gospel message was not linked to personal gain and could be accepted as God's pure word.

This plain speaking cleared the air and purified the people's hearts. Paul calls on them to make their language "Yea" and "Nay" (2 Cor 1:18) and dedicate their lives to Christ. Here is genuine forgiveness, wiping the slate clean so that all can begin over again, with more wisdom and maturity. Using an Old Testament image, he says they are like a chaste bride coming to her marriage, with joyful enthusiasm to be united with Christ. This image from the prophet Hosea (Hos 2:16), was later used by Jeremiah (Jer 2:2), Isaiah (Isa 54:5) and the Song of Songs.

Paul's words had a sobering effect on the Corinthians and to brought at least some of them back to their first loyalty, as a "chaste virgin" presented in marriage to Christ. By forgiving one another we announce the coming of God's kingdom and both receive and distribute the "daily bread" that God gives us.

The Lord's Prayer

The Lord's Prayer is found in two gospels, Matthew and Luke. In Matthew, Jesus begins by teaching them not to use many words, not to "babble" when praying to God, as the pagans do. This refers to the pagan practice of bombarding the gods with wordy, unintelligible formulae, to get them to act favourably to mankind. The disciples of Jesus are not to relate to his heavenly Father in that way. God is cannot be manipulated by our many words. Rather, as the Lord's Prayer suggests, we begin by surrendering ourselves to whatever God may want to do with us and with our world.

What basically matters is God's name, God's kingdom, God's will. We don't try to insist on what we ourselves want; we surrender to what God wants. Then we acknowledge our dependence on God, for our basic needs, for food for the day, for forgiveness, for strength when our faith is put to the test. The Lord's Prayer is powerful in its simplicity. It is not simply one prayer among many; it remains the fundamental teaching on how to pray.

Friday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 11:18, 21-30

Paul boasts about his hardships in carrying out his ministry

My brethren, since many others boast according to human standards, I will also boast. To my shame, I must say, we were too weak for that.

But whatever anyone dares to boast of, I am speaking as a fool, I also dare to boast of that. Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. Are they ministers of Christ? I am talking like a madman, I am a better one: with far greater labours, far more imprisonments, with countless floggings, and often near death. Five times I have received from the Jews the forty lashes minus one. Three times I was beaten with rods. Once I received a stoning. Three times I was shipwrecked; for a night and a day I was adrift at sea; on frequent journeys, in danger from rivers, danger from bandits, danger from my own people, danger from Gentiles, danger in the city, danger in the desert, danger at sea, danger from false brothers and sisters; in toil and hardship, through many a sleepless night, hungry and thirsty, often without food, cold and naked. And, besides other things, I am under daily pressure because of my anxiety for all the churches. Who is weak, and I am not eak? Who is made to stumble, and I am not indignant? If I must boast, I will boast of the things that show my weakness.

Responsorial: Psalm 33:2-7

R./: From all their afflictions God will deliver the just

I will bless the Lord at all times,
 his praise always on my lips;
 in the Lord my soul shall make its boast.
The humble shall hear and be glad. (R./)

Glorify the Lord with me;
 together let us praise his name.
 I sought the Lord and he answered me;
 from all my terrors he set me free. (R./)

Look towards him and be radiant;
 let your faces not be abashed.
This poor man called; the Lord heard him
 and rescued him from all his distress. (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 6:19-23

Do not lay up earthly treasure where moths and rust corrode

Jesus said, "Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust consume and where thieves break in and steal; but store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.

"The eye is the lamp of the body. So, if your eye is healthy, your whole body will be full of light; but if your eye is unhealthy, your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light in you is darkness, how great is the darkness."


Something to boast about

The Sermon on the Mount raises a problem we instinctively feel about Paul's tendency to boasting. Whereas Jesus says, "Where your treasure is, there your heart will be also," sometimes we get the uneasy feeling that St Paul speaks too much about himself.

Poor Paul gets caught up in a confusing whirlwind of boasting. "Since many are bragging, I too will boast," he says, with evident embarassment. We need to see this in context. Paul was trying to answer some bitter criticisms that came back to him from Corinth, where he had planted the church some years earlier. Oddly enough, the " boasting" that he does is mostly about the failures, disappointments and rejections he has suffered. When drawn into the boasting game, he can list only his sufferings while pursuing his apostolic work. Yet he leads the people to put their confidence in the power of the Spirit. Paul's eloquent bragging is not really an attempt to lay up earthly treasures, for he hopes to direct them to the source of any real strength that we have. His way of handling the false claims of others is such a delicate balance that it is hard to imitate. But it enables us to reconstruct his personal biography and to have a rare insight into his personality.

Other words of Jesus provide more practical advice. He advises us to have a "good eye," filled with light and so able to see goodness and light in the actions and hearts of others. Rather than be annoyed by their faults and idiosyncrasies, our "good eye" can recognize their good side. We should commend them for their virtues, not condemn them for their vices, and not imitate them in bragging or boasting. But if we must brag, let it be about the grace of God that helps us in whatever are our weaknesses, failures or moments of rejection.

What to treasure

St Paul boasts of experiences that most people would consider misfortunes, only to be mentioned in hushed tones. He speaks of beatings, imprisonments, floggings, stoning, shipwreck and much more. If he "boasts" of all these negative experiences it is because they came to him in the service of Christ. It was because of his preaching the gospel that all this suffering and misfortune came his way. They demonstrate where his true treasure lay. Paul valued Jesus Christ above everything else in life., As he says to the Philippians, "I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord."

When Jesus invites us to store up for ourselves true treasures in heaven, he is calling on us to take him as our one and only Saviour. In the language of the parables, Jesus is the pearl of great price. The Eucharist gives us an opportunity to treasure his priceless presence in our lives.

Saturday of Week 11

1st Reading: 2 Corinthians 12:1-10

A thorn in the flesh forced Paul to seek new strength from Christ

It is necessary to boast; nothing is to be gained by it, but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. I know a person in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven, whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows. And I know that such a person, whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows, was caught up into Paradise and heard things that are not to be told, that no mortal is permitted to repeat. On behalf of such a one I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except of my weaknesses. But if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I will be speaking the truth. But I refrain from it, so that no one may think better of me than what is seen in me or heard from me, even considering the exceptional character of the revelations. Therefore, to keep me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated. Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it ould leave me, but he said to me, "My grace is sufficient for you, for power is made perfect in weakness." So, I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. Therefore I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities for the sake of Christ; for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.

Responsorial: Psalm 33:8-13

R./: Taste and see the goodness of the Lord

The angel of the Lord is encamped
 around those who revere him, to rescue them.
Taste and see that the Lord is good.
He is happy who seeks refuge in him. (R./)

Revere the Lord, you his saints.
They lack nothing, those who revere him.
Strong lions suffer want and go hungry
 but those who seek the Lord lack no blessing. (R./)

Come, children, and hear me
 that I may teach you the fear of the Lord.
Who is he who longs for life and many days,
 to enjoy his prosperity? (R./)

Gospel: Matthew 6:24-34

We cannot serve two masters. Do not be anxious for tomorrow

Jesus said to his disciples, "No one can serve two masters; for a slave will either hate the one and love the other, or be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and wealth.

"Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or what you will drink, or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothing? Look at the birds of the air; they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? And can any of you by worrying add a single hour to your span of life? And why do you worry about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they neither toil nor spin, yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not clothed like one of these. But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which is alive today and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you, you of little faith? Therefore do not worry, saying, 'What will we eat?' or 'What will we drink?' or 'What will we wear?' For it is the Gentiles who strive for all these things; and indeed your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things. But strive first or the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. "So do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will bring worries of its own. Today's trouble is enough for today.


Our thorns in the flesh?

In a provocative turn of phrase, Paul writes, "I must go on boasting, however useless it may be." Even if he had been priveleged with visions and revelations of the Lord and in a vision was caught up to Paradise itself, he feels the foolishness of talking about it and says he will boast no more except about his weakness, which God helps him to bear. The passage becomes more intelligible if we remember that Paul dictated his epistles (and then to prove the authenticity of the letter signed it in his own handwriting, (1 Cor 16:21). When Paul asked his secretary to re-read that part of the letter to him, he probably added "no more boasting."

He frankly admits that he was tormented by "a thorn in the flesh." Many have tried to guess what Paul meant by this intriguing "thorn." Was it an unattractive appearance, a recurrent sickness, poor eyesight, a tendency to intemperately blunt speech? Was it an unfulfilled instinct for intimacy, having set aside the natural desire to marry? All we know is that this "thorn in the flesh," whatever it was, prompted him to turn repeatedly to God for help. Paul records that in answer to his prayer, God said, "My grace is enough for you, for power comes to perfection in weakness" (2 Cor 12:9). Knowing his weakness led Paul to discover a source of strength far greater than his own gifts and talents. His weakness led him to depths of prayer and dependence on God, as expressed in Jesus' words, "Don't worry about tomorrow. Your heavenly Father knows all that you need."

"Enough for the day, let tomorrow take care of itself." According to Jesus, it is more vital to live today than to worry about tomorrow. Life is more important than food, the body more valuable than clothes. It is not fair to the environment, much less Christian, to be enslaved to exotic foods and luxurious clothing. We need to review our values and goals, "Look at the birds in the sky. They do not sow or reap… yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are not you more important than they?" Selfish desires lead to all sorts of trouble, but as Paul points out, weakness turns into strength when it brings us to prayer and trust in God and the memory of God's goodness. This lesson can put our values back into order, for God can change our "thorns" into occasions of grace.

Not to worry

We all worry from time to time. Worrying is part of the human condition. Parents worry about their children. Family members worry about each other. Young people worry about their future. Jesus must have worried about his disciples, about the lack of response on the part of some of his contemporaries to his message, about many things. In today's gospel Jesus is not saying "don't ever worry about anything." The focus of worry in that gospel reading is food, drink and clothing, and the worry in question is excessive worry or preoccupation. Jesus says it is the pagans who set their hearts on such things.

We are not to set our hearts on trivial things. The message is really about getting our priorities right, getting them into line with God's priorities. To make it quite clear Jesus declares, "Set your hearts on God's kingdom first, and on his righteousness." Don't be so preoccupied about food, drink and clothing that there is no room in your heart for what God expects of us. The first phrases of the Lord's Prayer give what might be termed God's priorities, "Hallowed by thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be done." These were Jesus' priorities and we need to make them our own as well.